85th Pennsylvania Infantry

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Editor’s Note: Do you have information on this unit’s role at the Siege of Petersburg?  Please contact us using the Contact button in the menu at the top of the screen.  We are happy to exchange information with other researchers.

Muster In: Organized at Uniontown October 16 to November 12, 1861.1
Muster Out: Mustered out November 22, 1864. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 188th Pennsylvania Infantry [after the Siege of Petersburg, in July 1864, see below].2

Commander(s):
Lieutenant Colonel Edward Campbell
3

Captain Robert P. Hughes
Commander Image

Commander 3
Commander Image

First Offensive Order of Battle: First Brigade | First Division | X Corps | Army of the James | Union Army4,5

  • Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Edward Campbell (at least June 16, 1864)6
  • Unit Strength: >= 327 officers and men PFD (June 10, 1864)7
  • Weapons: Enfield Rifles (.577 caliber) (June 30, 1864)8

Second Offensive Order of Battle: First Brigade | First Division | X Corps | Army of the James | Union Army9,10

  • Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Edward Campbell (June 30, 1864)11,12
  • Unit Strength: probably around 320 officers and men PFD, 398 officers and men Present (June 28, 1864)13
  • Weapons: Enfield Rifles (.577 caliber) (June 30, 1864)14

Third Offensive Order of Battle: First Brigade | First Division | X Corps | Army of the James | Union Army15,16

  • Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Edward Campbell (at least July 13 and 31, 1864)17,18,19
  • Unit Strength:
    • 333 officers and men PFD, 411 officers and men Present (July 10, 1864)20
    • probably around 301 officers and men PFD, 371 officers and men Present (July 29, 1864)21
  • Weapons:
  • Note: On July 19, Companies A, B, G and K were detailed for picket duty at Point of Rocks, and continued duty there on July 20-21, before being relieved by Companies C, E, H and I on July 22. These four new companies remain on picket at Point of Rocks on July 23-25, when they were relieved by another unit at 4 p.m. and returned to camp.22

Fourth Offensive Order of Battle: First Brigade | First Division | X Corps | Army of the James | Union Army23,24,25

  • Commander:
    • Lieutenant Colonel Edward Campbell (acted as temporary ADC to Gen. Alfred H. Terry later in the day on August 16 at Fussell’s Mill) (at least August 7, 16 and 31, 1864)26,27,28
    • Captain Robert P. Hughes (while Campbell was serving as Terry’s temporary ADC on August 16) (August 16, 1864)29
  • Unit Strength:
    • probably around 313 officers and men PFD, 386 officers and men Present (August 3, 1864)30
    • 201 men brought into the fight at Fussell’s Mill, not including officers (August 16, 1864)31
  • Weapons:
  • Note: After the Explosion at City Point on August 9, 1864, Companies E, H and K of the 85th Pennsylvania were ordered on duty there for a time.32

Fifth Offensive Order of Battle: First Brigade | First Division | X Corps | Army of the James | Union Army33,34,35,36

  • Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Edward C. Campbell (at least September 7, 20, 23 & 27, 1864)37,38,39
  • Unit Strength: probably around 228 officers and men PFD, 281 officers and men Present (September 17, 1864)40
  • Weapons:
  • Note: On September 14, 1864, “12 men of Company A were detailed to serve as provost-guard at division [1/X/AotJ] headquarters.”41
  • Note: On October 14, 1864, the officers and men whose enlistments had expired were marched from the front north of the James River, to Aiken’s Landing on the James.  On October 15, they reached Deep Bottom and then Bermuda Hundred Landing, and were sent to Jamestown and then Portsmouth to serve out the remaining month or so of their term of service.42

Sixth Offensive Order of Battle: Portsmouth | District of Eastern Virginia | Department of Virginia and North Carolina | Union Army43,44

  • Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Edward Campbell (October 31, 1864)45
  • Unit Strength:
    • Detachment of the 85th PA: ~160 officers and men remaining attached to 199th PA (October 15, 1864)46
  • Weapons:
  • Note: A detachment of the 85th Pennsylvania remained with 1/1/X/AotJ and was attached to the 199th Pennsylvania after the main unit moved to Portsmouth, Va.47

Seventh Offensive Order of Battle:

First Brigade | First Division | X Corps | Army of the James | Union Army (detachment only, from November 22-December 3, 1864)48

First Brigade | First Division | XXIV Corps | Army of the James | Union Army (detachment only, from December 3-15, 1864)49

Provost Guard | First Division | XXIV Corps | Army of the James | Union Army (detachment only, from December 15-31, 1864)50

  • Commander:
  • Unit Strength:
  • Weapons:
  • Note: Mustered out November 22, 1864. Veterans and Recruits officially transferred to 188th Pennsylvania Infantry, but in reality, the remaining men of the 85th Pennsylvania were called “Detachment 85th Pennsylvania” and served in the field with the 199th PA.  This detachment only officially was folded into the 188th Pennsylvania in June 1865, well after the Siege of Petersburg had ended.51

Eighth Offensive Order of Battle:

  • No longer an independent command, but the remaining detachment was serving as Provost Guard, 1/XXIV/AotJ.52,53

Ninth Offensive Order of Battle:

  • No longer an independent command, but the remaining detachment was serving as Provost Guard, 1/XXIV/AotJ.54,55,56,57

Dyer’s/Sifakis’ Compendium Info:
Siege of Petersburg Battles58:

Web Sites:

Bibliography:

Siege of Petersburg Documents Which Mention This Unit:

Sources:

  1. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)
  2. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)
  3. Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/16452634/edward-campbell : accessed 05 February 2022), memorial page for Col Edward Campbell (24 Jul 1838–1912), Find a Grave Memorial ID 16452634, citing Oak Grove Cemetery, South Union Township, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, USA ; Maintained by Gregory Speciale (contributor 31762373).
  4. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XL, Part 1 (Serial Number 80), p. 233
  5. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XL, Part 2 (Serial Number 81), p. 553
  6. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 338: “…Com. Sergt. Bell went to the front where the Regiment was in position with rations but was forced to retire without issuing, as just then the Regiment was engaged in an effort to hold the enemy’s outer works; Bell asked Lieut. Col. Campbell what he should do with the rations, the latter excitedly replied: ‘To hell with your rations! I have no time to consider such things,’ and then dashed down the Regimental line on a gallop, soon lost to sight in a thicket, with his orderly endeavoring to follow in his wake…”
  7. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 337: “…Regiment on picket; relieved at 6 p. m.; no firing in front throughout the day; 327 rations of whiskey were issued to the men on their return from the picket-line…”
  8. Volume 14 (Ordnance Returns for the Second Quarter, April-June, 1864); 85th Pennsylvania Entry, Page 52; Summary Statements of Quarterly Returns of Ordnance and Ordnance Stores on Hand in Regular and Volunteer Army Organizations, 1862-1867, 1870-1876. (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1281, Roll 7); Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, 1797-1969, Record Group 156; National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.
  9. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XL, Part 1 (Serial Number 80), p. 233
  10. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XL, Part 2 (Serial Number 81), p. 553
  11. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XL, Part 2 (Serial Number 81), p. 553
  12. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 339-340: “June 30: …Regiment mustered for pay in the evening, after returning from the picket-line, by Lieut. Col. Campbell.”
  13. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 339: “June 28: …Regimental provision return indicates the strength of the Regiment as 398.” Given known numbers for Present and PFD for June 10 and July 10, 1864, an estimate for the PFD on June 28 is given by me.  It is only an estimate.
  14. Volume 14 (Ordnance Returns for the Second Quarter, April-June, 1864); 85th Pennsylvania Entry, Page 52; Summary Statements of Quarterly Returns of Ordnance and Ordnance Stores on Hand in Regular and Volunteer Army Organizations, 1862-1867, 1870-1876. (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1281, Roll 7); Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, 1797-1969, Record Group 156; National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.
  15. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XL, Part 1 (Serial Number 80), page 263
  16. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XL, Part 3 (Serial Number 82), page 738
  17. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XL, Part 3 (Serial Number 82), page 738
  18. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 348: “…Lieut. Col. Campbell gave notice that this order would be strictly enforced.”
  19. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 343
  20. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 342: There were 15 officers and 396 men present; of these 1 officer and 77 men were reported on the sick list excused from duty.
  21. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 349: “Regimental provision return indicates the total number of men present entitled to draw rations as 371…”
  22. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 348-349
  23. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 2 (Serial Number 88), page 619: “Organization of the Army of the Potomac…August 31, 1864”
  24. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 1 (Serial Number 87), page 119: “Return of Casualties in the Union Forces (August 1864)”
  25. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 353
  26. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 2 (Serial Number 88), page 619: “Organization of the Army of the Potomac…August 31, 1864”
  27. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 350: “…this was the first sermon in the Regimental camp for a long time, and Lieut. Col. Campbell made it compulsory for every man not on duty to attend, under penalty of being placed in arrest for not turning out; prayer-meeting followed preaching…”
  28. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 355-357
  29. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 357: “Lieut. Col. Campbell being mounted tendered his services as aide to Gen. Terry, and served in that capacity until dark, the command of the Regiment devolving upon Capt. Hughes.”
  30. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 349-350: “August 3: …provision return of the Regiment indicates 386 men present…” Given known numbers for Present and PFD for July 10, 1864, an estimate for the PFD on August 3 is given by me.  It is only an estimate.
  31. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 356
  32. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 350
  33. Sommers, Richard J. “Grant’s Fifth Offensive at Petersburg: A Study in Strategy, Tactics, and Generalship.  The Battle of Poplar Spring Church, the First Battle of the Darbytown Road, the Second Battle of the Squirrel Level Road, the Second Battle of the Darbytown Road (Ulysses S. Grant, Virginia).” Doctoral Thesis. Rice University, 1970. Print. p. 1303.
  34. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 1 (Serial Number 87), page 133: “Return of Casualties in the Union Forces (September-October 1864)”
  35. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 1 (Serial Number 87), page 144: “Return of Casualties in the Union Forces (September-October 1864)”
  36. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 1 (Serial Number 87), page 146: “Return of Casualties in the Union Forces (September-October 1864)”
  37. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 374-375
  38. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 383
  39. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 386: “Regiment at Fort Morton; detail constructing large bomb-proof in the fort by order of Lieut. Col. Campbell…”
  40. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 386: September 17: “…ration returns indicated 281 men present.” Given known numbers for Present and PFD for July 10, 1864, an estimate for the PFD on September 17 is given by me.  It is only an estimate.
  41. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 385
  42. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 419
  43. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 3 (Serial Number 89), page 469: “Organization of the Union Forces” (October 31, 1864)”
  44. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 1 (Serial Number 87), page 148: “Return of Casualties in the Union Forces…Fair Oaks and Darbytown Road, Va., October 27-28, 1864”
  45. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 3 (Serial Number 89), page 469: “Organization of the Union Forces” (October 31, 1864)”
  46. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 412
  47. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLII, Part 3 (Serial Number 89), page 465: “Organization of the Union Forces” (October 31, 1864)”
  48. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 411-412.
  49. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 411-412.
  50. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 411-412.
  51. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3): Dyer indicates the men were transferred to the 188th Pennsylvania, and leaves it at that.  But here is MUCH more to this story.  See Dan Clendaniel’s book Such Hard and Severe Service: The 85th Pennsylvania in the Civil War, Volume II, 1864-1865, pp. 100-102. He correctly mentions the remaining men of the 85th Pennsylvania actually served in the field for the remainder of their active campaigning with the 199th Pennsylvania.  This makes sense, too, because the 199th Pennsylvania was part of their former brigade.  The 188th Pennsylvania had no connection to these men until after the war was over, when they were officially folded into the 188th Pennsylvania in June 1865.  Also see History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865 by Luther S. Dickey, the original unit history of the regiment.  On pp. 411-412, Dickey writes extensively about this situation.
  52. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)
  53. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 411-412.
  54. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)
  55. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 411-412.
  56. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLVI, Part 1 (Serial Number 95), page 577: “Organization of the Union Forces” (March 31, 1865) : Company G of the 85th Pennsylvania under Lieutenant Absalom S. Dial served as the division Provost Guard for the First Division, XXIV Corps, Army of the James during this time.”
  57. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume XLVI, Part 1 (Serial Number 95), page 594: “Return of casualties in the Union Forces commanded by Lieut. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, March 29-April 9, 1865”
  58. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)
  59. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 338: “At daybreak the enemy was discovered to have abandoned his works; the pickets were immediately advanced to occupy them; after pressing the rear guard of the enemy a superior force compelled the Union forces to fall back, the Regiment resuming former position on the picket line about 6 p. m…”
  60. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 338: “Immediately after daybreak the enemy’s sharpshooters opened fire on our lines and kept up a sharp fire during the day; late in the afternoon the enemy advanced in superior force and drove the Regiment back about 200 yards, where it remained until 10.30 p. m., when it was relieved by the 67th Ohio; during the day four men of the Regiment were instantly killed; three taken prisoners of war, and several others wounded…”
  61. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 338: “Although the Regiment was relieved of duty on the picket line before midnight it did not reach camp until 3 a. m.; the enemy remained quiet in front during the forenoon; …about 4 p. m. the enemy attacked the position held by the 67th Ohio and drove it back; the Regiment was immediately ordered to re-inforce the latter, and the combined force, after a spirited contest, forced the enemy to retire; the Regiment remaining on picket during the night at the same position it had held on the 17th…”
  62. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 339: “…they received orders to get ready for an expedition, with 100 rounds of cartridges, two days rations, in light marching orders; Regiment left camp at 5 p. m., and marched to the bank of the James River where it bivouacked during the night near Jones Landing at a point called Jones Neck.”
  63. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, pp. 392-393: Next a recon mission on October 1, 1864 in the direction of Richmond out on the right flank is discussed: “About noon October 1 the Regiment at the head of the brigade again advanced out the Darbytown road to within a few hundred yards of the enemy’s last defences and within two or three miles of the Confederate capital.”
  64. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 407: “The Regiment with the brigade, made a reconnaissance on the Darbytown road, to within three or four miles of Richmond without much opposition; this was a tiresome march, as the roads were muddy, and a drizzling rain falling continuously throughout the day and during the night.”
  65. Dickey, Luther S. History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865: Comprising an Authentic Narrative of Casey’s Division at the Battle of Seven Pines. J. C. & E. E. Powers, 1915, p. 407: “Regiment remained in bivouac during the forenoon; shortly after noon the enemy made an attack on the pickets but were readily repulsed and the Regiment, after standing in line of battle a couple of hours, was permitted to break ranks.”

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