Rebel Units and Commanders at the Battle of Hatcher’s Run: Confederate Third Corps

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SOPO Editor’s Note: This is the third in a series of five guest posts by Dr. Nigel Lambert, a semi-retired British biochemist with a lifelong interest in the American Civil War.  Nigel has worked closely with Bryce Suderow over the first half of 2021 thoroughly researching the Confederate Order of Battle at the Battle of Hatcher’s Run, February 5-7, 1865.  Read on and you will soon see why this is such a difficult task.  I want to thank Dr. Lambert for his generous decision to publish this series of articles here at the Siege of Petersburg Online.  This article is the copyrighted work of Nigel Lambert and may not be reproduced without his express written consent. All rights reserved.

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Rebel Units and Commanders at the Battle of Hatcher’s Run.

Article 2: The Rebel Third Corps

By Dr Nigel Lambert, May 2021

This article (number 2 in a series of 3 main articles) explores the Rebel organization of the Army of Northern Virginia (ANV) Third Corps as pertaining to the battle of Hatcher’s Run (Feb 5-7th 1865). At the start of February, the Corps was composed of three divisions: Heth’s, Mahone’s and Wilcox’s. The latter did not take part in the battle and is thus not discussed in this article. The Third Corps artillery is also not included in this analysis. The two participating Divisions were composed of nine brigades. The following schema depicts the Rebel units involved in the battle of Hatcher’s Run and adopts the formal nomenclature used at the time to describe them. These units will be explored in turn to reveal the regimental structure of each brigade, who was actually commanding these units at the battle, and highlight areas of contention.

 

 

A.P. HILL (Third Corps)

HETH (Div)                                        MAHONE (Div)                     [WILCOX (Div)]

Cooke’s Brigade                               Finegan’s Brigade                       not involved

Davis’ Brigade                                   Harris’ Brigade

McComb’s Brigade                            Sanders’ Brigade

MacRae’s Brigade                              Sorrel’s Brigade

…………………………………………………………..Weisiger’s Brigade

 

Third Corps (Lt.-Gen. A. P. Hill)

Gen. Hill and his Corps had been defending the Petersburg line since June 1864. As 1865 dawned, Hill’s physical health was causing concern amongst his staff and colleagues. He had developed uremia (potentially fatal), which together with stress and lack of sleep made it hard for him to self-orientate and be attentive. The condition of his soldiers was also poor, with food and clothing (especially shoes) in short supply during the bitter winter. Consequently, absenteeism through illness and desertion was rife.1

Corps commander Gen. A.P. Hill

Corps commander Gen. A.P. Hill

Maj-Gen. Henry Heth

Maj-Gen. Henry Heth


Heth’s Division

Maj.-Gen. Henry Heth

Gen. Heth was an experienced commander and had led the division since May 1863 through many of the war’s bloodiest battles2. Estimates of the division strength around the time of the Hatcher’s Run battle range from 3,000 to 4,676 officers and men3. The “Civil War in the East” database (CWE) actually has Brig.-Gen. Joseph Davis commanding the Division for February 18654. As highlighted in my previous article, what has most likely occurred here, is that the CWE database has taken information from the Sibley data source5 stating that Davis was in command at some point in February 1865 and projected that to cover all of February 1865. The evidence is overwhelming that Heth was in Divisional command at Hatcher’s Run6.

 

Cooke’s Brigade

Brig.-Gen. John Cooke

 

15th NC – Lt-Col. (Col.) William Yarborough

27th NC – Maj. (Lt-Col.)  Joseph Webb

46th NC – Lt-Col. Alexander McAlister (uncertain)

48th NC – Capt. John Moore (uncertain)

55th NC – Capt. Walter Whitted

Brig-Gen John Cooke

Brig-Gen John Cooke

Brig-Gen Joseph Davis

Brig-Gen Joseph Davis

 

John Cooke was the brother-in-law of the famed Rebel cavalier JEB Stuart, while his father was a general in the Federal army. Cooke was promoted to general on November 1st 1862 and had a very active war, being wounded seven times, at least four of which were serious7.

The regimental compositional data for this brigade in January 1865 is consistent across the CWE database and an Inspection Report that took place on 28th January8. However, there are several anomalies with this information and the above list hopefully provides a more complete picture of the regimental structure that existed at the battle of Hatchers Run, just over one week later.

A significant amendment is the inclusion of the 55th NC regiment, which transferred to Cooke’s Brigade from Davis’ Brigade just prior to the battle of Hatcher’s Run9 and hence was not listed in this brigade’s Inspection Report (see above). The 55th NC does not appear anywhere in the CWE database for January 186510. Their commander Capt. Whitted was seriously wounded at Hatcher’s Run during the fighting of February 5th; it’s not clear if he ever returned to duty. The Sibley dataset records that Whitted took a leave of absence on February 16th, whereupon Capt. John Peden took command of the regiment. The CWE database erroneously has Peden in command of the 55th NC for all of February 186511.

William Yarborough was promoted to Colonel on November 4th 1864, however, both the End of January Inspection Report and the CWE database have him listed as Lt-Col.12.  Similarly, Joseph Webb was promoted to Lt-Col. on January 11th 1865, but he is only listed as a Major in the Inspection Report and CWE database for end of January13. At this late stage of the war there could be significant delays in getting promotions formally ratified by the Rebel government.

Lt-Col. McAlister had commanded the 46th NC throughout October – December 1864; the formal regimental commander Col. Samuel Saunders, returned in January 1865 and his

name is found on the January 27th Inspection Report and the CWE database for that month. However, it seems that McAlister was back in command during February 1865 (possibly including the Hatcher’s Run battle) up to February 27th, when he was sent on a special assignment14.

The End of January Inspection Report and CWE database have Col. Samuel Walkup as commander of the 48th NC regiment15, however, he went on leave from January 29th to around February 16th and hence would not have been at the battle of Hatcher’s Run. Capt. John Moore had on recent occasions acted as regimental commander in the absence of Col Walkup and it is likely that he did so on this absence also16.

Just prior to the Hatcher’s Run battle, the brigade strength was reported as 1,417 infantrymen17. Some casualty data shows that the 55th NC regiment lost 2 killed and 8 wounded at the battle, and the 27th NC regiment lost 1 killed and 1 wounded, however, some claim that the 55th NC loses were far greater18.

The reports of these five regiments in Clarks five-volume anthology are rather mixed. The 15th and 48th accounts have no mention of the battle at all and the 46th and 55th have just a few words. The 27th NC account however, contains a much fuller description of their deeds at the battle19.

 

Davis’ Brigade

Brig-Gen. Joseph Davis

 

1st Confederate Battalion – Maj. Francis McClung

2nd Miss – Lt-Col. John Blair

11th Miss – Maj. (Col.) Reuben Reynolds

26th Miss – Maj. Tully Parker

42nd Miss – Lt-Col. (Col.) Andrew Nelson

 

Joseph Davis was the nephew of the Rebel President Jefferson Davis; he gained a Brig-Gen. commission in September 1862 and was assigned to this brigade which he led through some of the most bitter battles of the war. By the end of January 1865, the brigade strength was 978 infantrymen20.

The brigade’s Inspection Report for January 30th 1865 and CWE database for that January, provide the same regimental structures21. Regarding the situation a week later at the battle of Hatchers Run, a few amendments have been made in creating the above list. The 55th NC regiment was still part of this brigade on the day of inspection, however, this regiment transferred to Cooke’s North Carolinian Brigade in early February 1865 as described above. The CWE database mistakenly includes the 26th NC regiment and not
the 26th Miss, as part of the brigade. The listed commander, Major Parker was a longstanding member of the 26th Miss22. The 26th NC was in fact part of MacRae’s Brigade (see below). Reuben Reynolds (11th Miss) was promoted to Colonel on December 1st 1864; however, he is still listed as a Major in the January 30th Inspection Report23. Similarly, Andrew Nelson (42nd Miss) was promoted to colonel as early as May 5th 1864, but is still listed as Lt-Col. in the January Inspection Report and CWE database in January 186524.

As discussed above, the CWE database erroneously has Gen. Davis as Division commander for all of February 1865, (which obviously would include the Hatcher’s Run battle) with Lt-Col. Nelson in charge of the brigade. It seems fairly clear that Gen. Davis led the brigade at Hatcher’s Run25. One notable brigade casualty from the battle was Lt-Col. Blair the commander of the 2nd Miss regiment, who was captured during the February 5th fighting26.

 

McComb’s Brigade

Brig.-Gen. William McComb

 

2nd MD Battalion – Capt. Joseph McAleer

1st Tenn – Capt. William Daniel

7th Tenn – Lt-Col. Samuel Shepherd

14th Tenn – Capt. William Winfield (tentative)

17th and 23rd Tenn – Col Horace Ready

25th and 44th Tenn – Capt. Jonathon Spencer

63rd Tenn Battalion – Capt. A. A. Blair

 

This reconstituted brigade had a complex history; it is a combination of Gen. James Archer’s old brigade (2nd MD, 1st Tenn, 7th Tenn and 14th Tenn) and the remnants of Gen. Bushrod Johnson’s old brigade. These were the only two Tennessee brigades that fought in the Eastern Theatre. Bushrod Johnson had been promoted and given command of a division in the Fourth Corps and the former brigade commander, the popular Gen. Archer, died on October 24th 186427. However, the brigade was still formally called “Archer’s Brigade until Col. William McComb was promoted to Brig-Gen. on January 20th 1865 and formally took command28. The brigade structure presented is in accordance with both the brigade’s Inspection Report and CWE database for the end of January 1865, the former reports the brigade strength at 907 infantry29

Command of McComb’s old regiment the 14th Tenn, seems to be rather confused around the time of the Hatcher’s Run battle. One source reports that when McComb formally took over brigade command in January 1865, Lt-Col. James Lockert was made Colonel of the
14th Tenn, However, Lockert is not listed on the Confederate Colonel register, another source claims he was wounded and captured at Gettysburg and never returned to duty30.   The end of January Inspection Report shows Capt. Winfield as the regimental commander,

Brig-Gen William McComb – promoted in January 1865.

Brig-Gen William McComb – promoted in January 1865.

Brig-Gen William MacRae – absent during the Hatcher’s Run Battle.

Brig-Gen William MacRae – absent during the Hatcher’s Run Battle.

whether he or James Lockert was commanding at Hatcher’s Run a week later, remains unclear. By the end of February 1865, Major James Johnson is reported as being in command31. This is a good illustration of the transient nature of regimental command structure in some parts of the Rebel Army at this late stage of the war.

 

MacRae’s Brigade

Lt-Col. James Adams / Col. John Lane – uncertain

 

11th NC – Capt. William Kerr

26th NC – uncertain

44th NC – Col. Thomas Singletary (uncertain)

47th NC – Maj. William Lankford

52nd NC – Capt. John Alexander

 

The Inspection Report for Jan 27th 1865, nine days before the battle of Hatcher’s Run, records Gen. William MacRae as present in command of the 1,203-strong brigade, with Col. John Lane as commander of the 26th NC regiment. The other regimental commanders present in the Inspection Report are as listed above32. The CWE database for January 1865, reports that the 44th NC regiment was commanded by Maj. Charles Stedman33 as of 31st January. In view of the Inspection Report data, this would seem to be an error. However, it is not inconceivable that Col. Singletary was absent at the battle of Hatcher’s
Run a few days later, through illness or other reasons, and Maj. Stedman took over command. This would at least support recent accounts of the brigade at the battle (see below). Thomas Singletary had become Colonel of the 44th NC as early as June 28th 1862, following the death of his brother Col. George Singletary. Wounded at Spotsylvania in May 1864, he only returned to duty on November 21st 1864. Maj. Stedman had been commanding the regiment in his absence34.

Brig-Gen. William MacRae was a seasoned and highly regarded commander who had been leading the brigade since June 186435. However, several credible sources claim that MacRae was in fact absent from the Hatchers Run battle of February 5-7th 186536. One evidence stream is none other than Gen. A. P. Hill himself, who is reported as saying: “Had William MacRae been here, the result would have been different“. One source even claims that not only was Gen. MacRae absent, but his entire brigade was absent too37. Although, the account of the 44th NC regiment in Clark’s anthology doesn’t mention the battle of Hatcher’s Run (not an uncommon occurrence, as I have revealed for several other NC regiments that were present at the battle), the other four regimental accounts in Clark’s anthology do reference the battle38. The overwhelming evidence does place the brigade in the battle (see below).

Earl Hess reports that although MacRae was absent due to illness, at the battle of Hatcher’s Run (returning a few days after the battle), the brigade was very much present, although he is unclear as to who was commanding. Col John Lane (26th NC) was the brigade’s senior officer and was a likely candidate, but MacRae’s able adjutant-general Capt. Louis G. Young seemed active in directing troop movements during the battle39. A recent regimental history of the 11th NC regiment by William Venner, provides a fuller explanation40. This text confirms the absence of Gen. MacRae at Hatcher’s Run and goes on to claim that Lt-Col. James Adams of the 26th NC regiment took charge of the five-regiment brigade. Furthermore, because of the inexperienced nature of the commander, the brigade was initially kept in reserve during the battle. If this account is true, it would mean that both Col. John Lane, and Col. Thomas Singletary (both senior to Lt-Col Adams) were also absent at the time of the battle. In the Earl Hess account, it suggests but does not definitively state, that Maj. Stedman was in a position of command during the battle41. I have so far been unable to corroborate the Venner account and thus regard the command of both this brigade and that of the 44th NC regiment and 26th NC regiment at the battle of Hatcher’s Run as uncertain.

Many reputable accounts of the battle have William MacRae and his brigade present at the battle and heavily involved in the February 5th fighting42. Although some texts and battle-maps simply refer to “MacRae’s Brigade”, none add any qualifier stating that MacRae was not actually commanding the brigade, unlike for several other formally named units that were commanded at the battle by others (for example, Col. Peck commanding York’s Brigade, Col. Forney commanding Sander’s Brigade and Gen. Finegan commanding Mahone’s Division). It is probably safe to assume that the absence of William MacRae at Hatcher’s Run has “slipped under the radar” of many chroniclers.


Mahone’s Division

Brig-Gen. Joseph Finegan

Comprising of up to 4,600 men, Maj-Gen. William (Billy) Mahone’s Division formed a significant part of the Rebel Third Corps and was held in high esteem by both blue and gray soldiers alike. However, as February 1865 dawned, Mahone was absent sick and Brig- Gen. Finegan was tasked with commanding the division; it was Finegan who would lead the division at the battle of Hatcher’s Run43.

“Old Barney” Finegan (sometimes misspelt Finnegan) had strong ties to his beloved Florida. He and his Florida brigade had been transferred from Florida to Lee’s ANV in May 186444. Through his political connections in the “Sunshine State”, it had been arranged in January 1865 for him to return to Florida. However, out of a sense of duty, he agreed to remain in command of the division until Mahone returned, which he did on March 20th 1865, when Finegan consequently moving back to Florida45. His Florida brigade remained in the Petersburg trenches.

Despite the fact that William Mahone was nowhere near Hatcher’s Run in February 1865, formally, this combat unit, at the time, was called Mahone’s Division. For civil war era accounts and battle-maps mention may or may not have been made to the fact that the division at Hatcher’s Run, was actually being commanded by Gen. Finegan46. One eye-witness account reports: “General William Mahone of Hill’s Corps then arrived, and Pegram joined him in the attack and the enemy were driven across Hatcher’s Run47. For any modern-day reader, the likely inference drawn from this text, is that General Mahone arrived in person.

Most modern narratives of the battle, explicitly state that Mahone was absent and that Finegan was commanding, most modern battle-maps use the “Finegan” label (and not the technically correct “Mahone”) to situate the division48. As I discussed in my Introduction article and as I’ve just described with MacRae’s Brigade, distinguishing between formal attributions of Rebel units and who was actually commanding them at a given time, can cause substantial misunderstandings. This clarification, as it pertains to the battle of Hatcher’s Run, is the primary goal of these articles.

For some unknown reason there are no End of January 1865 Inspection Reports filed for this Division49, which robs us of a significant information resource.

 

Finegan’s Brigade

Col. David Lang

 

2nd Fla – Col Walter Moore

5th Fla – Lt.-Col William Baya (of the 8th Fla)

8th Fla – Maj Thomas Clarke

9th Fla – Capt. H.C. Simons

10th Fla – Lt-Col. William Scott

11th Fla – Col. Theodore Brevard

This brigade was the command of Gen. Joseph Finegan, however, as he was temporarily serving as divisional commander (see above), brigade command passed to Col. David Lang. The CWE database erroneously has Gen. Finegan as brigade commander for all of January and February and Col. Lane is completely absent for these two months50.

Lang was the longstanding commander of the 8th Fla regiment, although the CWE database does not record him as commanding this unit from August 1864 to February 186551. In most general accounts of the battle, there is only commentary of the actions of Mahone’s Division per se; mention of the specific brigades is rare. In two examples of where the specific brigades are mentioned, this brigade is exclusively omitted. Despite these anomalies, and based upon a brigade history, it seems clear that Finegan’s Brigade was present at Hatcher’s Run and David Lang was its commander52.

Upon Finegan’s departure to Florida around March 20th (see above), after strong lobbying from Gen. Mahone, it was Col. Theodore Brevard that was promoted to Brig- Gen. to lead the brigade, and not David Lang, who Mahone may have personally disliked. By March 28th Brevard’s promotion was approved and he took command of the brigade. Interestingly, Brevard would be the last Rebel general (out of 425) duly appointed by President Jeff Davis53.

Two sources have a Capt. Clarke commanding the 10th Fla regiment for January 1865. However, at the Hatcher’s Run fight, the more senior regimental officer Lt-Col. William Scott, was not only present, but was wounded and lost an arm54, thus he is the more likely commander at the battle.

Brig-Gen. Joseph Finegan – commander of Mahone’s Division at Hatcher’s Run

Brig-Gen. Joseph Finegan – commander of Mahone’s Division at Hatcher’s Run

Brig-Gen. Nathaniel Harris

Brig-Gen. Nathaniel Harris

 


Harris’ Brigade

Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Harris

 

12th Miss – Lt-Col. Thomas Manlove (of the 48th Miss)

16th Miss – Lt-Col. James Duncan

19th Miss – Col. Richard Phipps

48th Miss – Col. Joseph Jayne

 

Gen. Harris had been in command of this Mississippian brigade since January 186455. A post-war account for Harris’ Brigade at Hatcher’s Run56 confirms the above regimental command structure provided by the CWE database for late January 1865, with one notable exception; the database has a Capt. A.K. Jones leading the 12th Miss regiment. It seems clear that the more senior Lt-Col. Thomas Manlove was present at the battle of Hatcher’s Run, because there are reports of his wounding and capture at the fight57. Some sources claim that he actually died from his wounds, but he survived and died in 1880. Manlove was a longstanding Lt-Col. in the 48th Miss regiment. It would seem that in late 1864 he transferred across to the 12th Miss to became their commander. However, no regimental account I have discovered for the 12th Miss lists Manlove as ever being its commander58.

 

Sanders’ Brigade

Col. William Forney

 

8th Ala – Lt-Col. J.P. Emrich

9th Ala – Maj. James Crow

10th Ala – Lt-Col. William T. Smith (uncertain)

11th Ala – Capt. Martin Stewart

13th Ala – Col James Aiken

14th Ala – Capt. John Terrell

 

At the time of the Hatcher’s Run battle, this Alabaman unit was known as “Sanders’ Brigade”, after its well-liked, former commander Brig-Gen. John Sanders, who had been killed on 21st August 186459. Col. William Forney had been captured at Gettysburg where he commanded the 10th Ala, and spent over a year as a prisoner of war. Upon his exchange in August 1864, still on crutches, he re-joined his old regiment and then was soon given command of the brigade. However, because he was not a Brig-Gen. it was still technically called Sanders’ brigade60. As discussed previously, surprisingly few modern accounts of the battle describe Mahone’s Division at a brigade level. I have found only three accounts that mention this brigade with “Sanders’ Alabamians” used is a common

descriptor. Only one of these sources uses a map with the brigade situated and it is labelled “Forney”61. Following the battle of Hatcher’s Run, William Forney was officially promoted to Brig-Gen. on February 15th 186562.

Regarding the regimental details there are a few contextual issues to highlight. The longstanding commander of the 9th Ala regiment, Col. J. Horace King went on a leave of absence from 19th January 1865 and it seems that he never returned, leaving Maj. Crow in command63. The CWE database for January 1865, records Capt. Stewart in command of the 10th Ala as well as the 11th Ala; this seems unlikely. Lt-Col Smith was known to be in command at some point in February 1865, whether he was at the time of the Hatcher’s Run battle is uncertain64. The longstanding commander of the 11th Ala regiment Col. George Tayloe, although present in January 1865, seems to have been absent for the following month65 with Capt. Stewart taking temporary command. Col. Tayloe would go on to lead Sorrel’s Brigade after Gen. Sorrel was severely wounded at Hatcher’s Run (see below). The 13th Ala regiment had only joined the brigade (from Archer’s, soon to become McComb’s Brigade, Heth’s Division), on Jan 9th 186566. Finally, the longstanding but infirm commander of the 14th Ala regiment, Col. Lucius Pinckard was medically retired67 on January 3rd 1865 with Capt. Terrell taking command.

 

Sorrel’s Brigade

Brig.-Gen. Moxley Sorrel

 

3rd Ga – Capt. James Matthews

22nd Ga – Capt. George Thomas

48th Ga – Capt. Alexander Flanders

64th Ga – Capt. Creswell Walker

2nd Ga Battalion – Capt. George Jones

10th Ga Battalion – Maj. James Frederick (uncertain)

 

Moxley Sorrel was an interesting character, an excellent staff officer to Gen. Longstreet for much of the war, his memoirs received critical acclaim, although they say little about the battle of Hatcher’s Run68. This Georgian brigade was formerly “Wright’s brigade”. Moxley Sorrel was promoted on October 27th 1864 and took over permanent command of the brigade after Gen. Ambrose Wright (initially the commander of the 3rd Ga regiment) had been transferred to Georgia69. Sorrel was seriously wounded at Hatcher’s Run during the fighting on February 7th, with brigade command eventually passing to Col. George Tayloe (of the 11th Alabama Regiment, see above)70. One renowned account reports that Col. George Taylor (sic) was in brigade command throughout December 1864 – April 1865, which is clearly incorrect71.

Regarding the regimental structure, Maj. Frederick was known to be in command of the 10th Ga battalion on January 31st 1865, whether he was present at the battle of Hatcher’s Run a week later is uncertain; a Capt Caleb Hill is known to be commanding at some point

in February 186572. The long-standing commander of the 64th Ga regiment, Col. Walter Weems was commanding up to and including January 1865, however, it seems clear that Capt. Walker was commanding throughout February73. The lack of Rebel senior officers at this stage of the war is very noticeable with this brigade, with five of the regiments being commanded by captains; three ranks below the usual regimental colonelcy.

 

Moxley Sorrel

Brig-Gen Moxley Sorrel – severely wounded at Hatcher’s Run

David A. Weisiger

Brig-Gen. David Weisiger

 

Weisiger’s Brigade

Brig.-Gen. David Weisiger

 

6th Va – Col. George Rogers

12th Va – Capt. Thomas Owens

16th Va – Capt. Solomon Eley

41st Va – Lt.-Col. Joseph Minetree

61st Va – Col. Virginius Groner

 

This is a fairly consistent dataset. David Weisiger (formerly commander of the 12th Va) took over brigade command in May 1864 and continued in that capacity to the war’s end. Hatcher’s Run hardly features in any narrative of Weisiger or the five Virginian regiments of his brigade74. The established commander of the 16th Va regiment Lt-Col. Richard Whitehead, was wounded on January 30th 1865, and Capt. Eley took command just prior to the battle of Hatcher’s Run75. Private Bernard of the 12th Va regiment provides a brief account of the regiment’s exploits at Hatcher’s Run including casualties of 23 killed and wounded76.


Conclusions

The article explores the organization and command structure of the Rebel Third Corps around the time of the battle of Hatcher’s Run (Feb 5-7th 1865). The key issues addressed are as follows:

  • Gen Joseph Davis did not lead Heth’s Division at Hatcher’s Run and consequently Lt-Col Nelson did not command Davis’ Brigade, as could be inferred from a key data source.
  • The 55th NC regiment fought at Hatcher’s Run as part of Cooke’s Brigade and not Davis’ Brigade.
  • Gen MacRae was absent ill at the time of the Hatcher’s Run battle. Who commanded his brigade during the battle is unclear; Col. John Lane and Lt-Col James Adams have both been postulated as possible candidates.
  • Unlike for Gen. MacRae, the absence of Gen. Mahone at Hatcher’s Run is widely accepted and that Gen. Finegan was commanding Mahone’s Division at the battle, with Col. David Lang in command of Finegan’s Brigade.
  • When discussed at all, most authors employ the technically correct descriptor “Sanders’ Brigade” while usually acknowledging that Col. William Forney was in command at Hatcher’s Run. The one battle-map depicting this brigade however uses “Forney” as the label. This is another example of the confusing inconsistencies in describing Rebel units at this battle, that hopefully these articles address.

Other minor inconsistencies and oddities are also highlighted.

In the next, and final article of this series, attention is focused upon the organization and commanders that comprised Gen. Rooney Lee’s Division of cavalry at the battle of Hatcher’s Run.

 

Nigel Lambert’s Hatcher’s Run Series:

 

Notes

Information about the photographs uses and full details of the bold references are provided in the Introduction text along with “Acknowledgements”.

  1. James Robertson (1987) “Gen. A. P. Hill: The Story of a Confederate Warrior” p310.
  2. Mark Boatner ed. (1959) “Cassell’s Biographical Dictionary of the American Civil War” p398;
  3. Thomas Livermore (1986) “Numbers and Losses in the Civil War in America” p134 estimates no more than 3,000; whereas the January Inspection Report records 4,676, NARA, (1973) M935, Roll 15, 7.P.53, 0150: Inspection Reports and Related Records Received By the Inspection Branch in the Confederate Adjutant and Inspector General’s Office, hereafter referred to as NARA (1973).
  4. Hawks, Heth’s Division webpage for February 1865. Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, February 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com)
  5. F. Ray Sibley (1996), “The Confederate Order of Battle, Vol 1 The Army of Northern Virginia”. This valuable data source is used extensively by both Hawks and Schulte in populating their respective datasets. Covering such a vast amount of data, unsurprisingly there are a several glitches and errors. The Hawks database is laid out on a monthly basis, however if Sibley reports that person X was commanding a unit on a particular day in say February 1865, that does not necessary mean that he was commanding for the whole of that month. Hawks sometimes but not always, explains these situations.
  6. Bearss, p186-192; Trudeau, p314-316; A. Wilson Greene (2008) “The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion”, p101-02.
  7. “General John Cooke”, Civil War Wiki, John Rogers Cooke | Civil War Wiki | Fandom (wikia.org)
  8. Hawks, Heth’s Division webpage for January 1865. Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com); NARA (1973), M935, Roll 15, 9.P.53, 0178.
  9. Clark, vol3, p310; Christopher Bingham (2007) “From New Bern to Bennett Place with Cookes’ Foot Cavalry, a History of the 27th Regiment of North Carolina Troops, 1861-1865”, MA Thesis, East Carolina University, p411.
  10. Hawks, Heth’s Division webpage for January 1865. Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com); Hawks, Mahones’ Division webpages for January 1865, Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com).
  11. Charles R. Jones, Petersburg Siege Newspapers, “Historical Sketch.” Our Living and Our Dead (Newbern, NC), May 20, 1874, p. 1 col. 5-6, p. 2, col. 1. Schulte, 55th NC webpage, 55th North Carolina Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com) ; Hawks, Heth’s Division webpage for February 1865, Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, February 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com) .
  12. Schulte, 15th NC webpage, 15th North Carolina Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Bruce Allardice (2008) “Confederate Colonels: A Biographical Register”, p410; Hawks, Heth’s Division webpage January 1865, Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com) ; NARA (1973), M935, Roll 15, 9.P.53, 0178:
  13. Schulte, 27th NC webpage, 27th North Carolina Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Hawks, ibid; NARA, (1973) ibid.
  14. Schulte 46th NC webpage 46th North Carolina Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Hawks, ibid; NARA ibid.
  15. Hawks, ibid; NARA (1973)
  16. Schulte, 48th NC webpage, 48th North Carolina Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  17. NARA (1973), M935, Roll 15, 9.P.53, 0176:
  18. “55th North Carolina Infantry Regiment: Battles and Casualties”, Thomas’ Legion website, 55th North Carolina Infantry Regiment: Battles, Casualties (thomaslegion.net); “27th North Carolina Infantry Regiment: Battles and Casualties”, Thomas’ Legion website, 27th North Carolina Infantry Regiment: Battles, Casualties (thomaslegion.net). Christopher Bingham (2007) “From New Bern to Bennett Place with Cookes’ Foot Cavalry, a History of the 27th Regiment of North Carolina Troops, 1861-1865”, MA Thesis, East Carolina University, p417, claims that the 55th NC regiment lost upwards of 25 men.
  19. Clark, vol1, p747-48; vol2, p450-52; vol3, p78, p122, p311-12.
  20. Civil War Wiki “Joseph R. Davis”, Joseph R. Davis | Civil War Wiki | Fandom (wikia.org); NARA, (1973) M935, Roll 15, 10.P.53, 0188.
  21. Hawks, Heths Division webpage January 1865, Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com); NARA, (1973) M935, Roll 15, 10.P.53, 0190.
  22. Hawks, Heth’s Division webpage for February 1865, Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, February 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com). Schulte, 26th Miss webpage, 26th Mississippi Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  23. Hawks, 11th Miss webpage, 11th Mississippi Infantry Regiment – The Civil War in the East; Bruce Allardice (2008) “Confederate Colonels: A Biographical Register”, p320; NARA, (1973) M935, Roll 15, 10.P.53, 0190. Interestingly, Steven Stubbs (2000) large (950 pages) regimental history of the 11th Miss regiment “Duty.Valor.Honor”, does not mention the battle of Hatchers Run.
  24. Bruce Allardice (2008) “Confederate Colonels: A Biographical Register”, p289; NARA, (1973) M935, Roll 15, 10.P.53, 0190; Hawks, Heths Division webpage January 1865, Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com). Interestingly, Schulte quoting from the Ray Sibley reference book, erroneously claim that Col. Nelson was captured at the Hatchers Run battle while commanding the brigade, and that Col Reynolds (11th Miss) took over command. 11th Mississippi Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com). In truth, Nelson was captured on April 2nd (along with most of the 42nd Miss regiment) near Hatcher’s Run as part of the Federal breakthrough. Hawks, 42nd Miss webpage, History of the 42nd Mississippi Infantry Regiment in the American Civil War (civilwarintheeast.com).
  25. Bearss p186-92; Trudeau, p315.
  26. Civil War Talk (2019), The Battle of Dabney’s Mill (Hatcher’s Run) | The Traveler’s Companion – Visit Historic Sites (civilwartalk.com).
  27. James Robertson (1987) “Gen. A. P. Hill: The Story of a Confederate Warrior” p306; Mark Boatner ed. (1959) “Cassell’s Biographical Dictionary of the American Civil War” p525; Earl Hess (2002) “Lee’s Tar Heels” p284. In his description of the Hatcher’s Run battle, Hess still refers to “Archer” and “Archer’s Brigade”, although he does state that McComb was now it’s commander.
  28. 7th Tenn unit history extracted from “Tennesseans in the Civil War” vol 1 (1964), posted on “Tennessee and the Civil War” website November 2016, 7th Tennessee Infantry Regiment – Tennessee & the Civil War (tngenweb.org); provides a good summary of the evolving command structure for this brigade throughout the war.
  29. Hawks, Heths Division webpage January 1865, Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com); NARA, (1973) M935, Roll 15, 11.P.53, 0210,0212. Another source states that by January 31st 1865, this brigade only numbered around 300 effectives, with many of the regiments having just a few dozen men. James Robertson (1987) “Gen. A. P. Hill: The Story of a Confederate Warrior” p310.
  30. 14th Tenn unit history extracted from “Tennesseans in the Civil War” vol 1 (1964), posted on “Tennessee and the Civil War” website November 2016, 14th Tennessee Infantry Regiment – Tennessee & the Civil War (tngenweb.org); Bruce Allardice (2008) “Confederate Colonels: A Biographical Register”, Hawks, 14th Tenn webpage 14th Tennessee Infantry Regiment (civilwarintheeast.com).
  31. Schulte webpage for 14th Tenn, 14th Tennessee Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); “Tennessee in the Civil War” (1964) ibid.
  32. NARA, (1973) M935, Roll 15, 8.P.53, 0162,0164. Singletary is spelled Singeltary on the actual report and the Official Records text (O.R., series 1, vol 46, p1182) and this (mis)spelling has been copied in other texts.
  33. Hawks, Heths Division webpage January 1865, Heth’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com). Charles Stedman would become the last surviving Rebel veteran in the US congress. Max Williams (1994) “Charles Manly Stedman”, NCpedia, Stedman, Charles Manly | NCpedia.
  34. Hawks, 44th NC webpage, 44th North Carolina Infantry Regiment (civilwarintheeast.com); Schulte, 44th NC webpage, 44th North Carolina Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Geni ancestor website, Thomas Chapeau Singletary (1840 – 1873) – Genealogy (geni.com).
  35. Paul Branch, (1991) “William MacRae”, NCpedia, MacRae, William | NCpedia; Craig Chapman (2017) “William MacRae – Combat Leader” General William MacRae Civil War Combat Commander (craigschapman.com) .
  36. Paul Branch, (1991) ibid; “General William MacRae: Lee’s Fighting Brigadier”, Cape Fear Historical Institute, General William MacRae (cfhi.net) ; Earl Hess (2002) “Lee’s Tar Heels” p284-87; Thomas Venner (2015) “The 11th North Carolina Infantry in the Civil War: A History and Roster”, p196.
  37. “General William MacRae: Lee’s Fighting Brigadier”, ibid.
  38. Clark, vol3 p32. Similarly, Hawks, 44th NC webpage all reports no battle activity for this regiment from October 28th and April 1st, 44th North Carolina Infantry Regiment (civilwarintheeast.com); Clark, vol1, p601; vol2, p390; vol3, p99, p251.
  39. Earl Hess (2002) “Lee’s Tar Heels” p284-87. Capt. Louis G. Young was badly wounded at the battle of Hatcher’s Run and was still hospitalized at the end of the war; Confederate Veteran Magazine (1922) vol30, p306.
  40. W. Thomas Venner (2015) “The 11th North Carolina Infantry in the Civil War: A History and Roster”, p196-97.
  41. Earl Hess (2002) “Lee’s Tar Heels” p285.
  42. Trudeau, p315; Bearss, p186 p189 (map); John Horn (1993) “The Petersburg Campaign” p201; A. Wilson Greene (2008) “The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion”, p102; Schulte, Battle of Hatcher’s Run webpages, The Battle of Hatcher’s Run (or Dabney’s Mill): February 5-7, 1865 — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Civil War Preservation Trust, Hatcher’s Run battle map for February 5th 1865, Battle of Hatcher’s Run – February 5, 1865 | American Battlefield Trust (battlefields.org); As of May 2021 the site boards at the actual battlefield show MacRae labels, Bill Couglin (2007) “The Battle of Hatchers Run”, The Historical Marker Database, The Battle of Hatcher’s Run Historical Marker (hmdb.org). All these references refer to “MacRae’s brigade” and not to MacRae in person. However, none mention that he was not In contrast, these books clearly state the absence of Gen. Mahone, and the maps use “Finegan” to label the division (see note 48).
  43. Trudeau, p319-20; John Horn (1993) “The Petersburg Campaign” p206; Moxley Sorrel (1905) “Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer, p174-75. Bearss, p215; Earl Hess (2009), In the Trenches at Petersburg, p227; Sherrill, p412 reports Mahone’s Division as comprising 4,600 men; although Col. J. J. Dickison (1899) Confederate Military History, Vol 11.2, Florida (Clement Evans, Ed.) p159-60, states the division strength as only 3,500 effectives.
  44. American Battlefield Trust, Civil War biographies: Joseph Finegan webpage, Joseph Finegan | American Battlefield Trust (battlefields.org).
  45. Waters and Edmonds (2013) “A Small but Spartan Band: The Florida Brigade in Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia” p175.
  46. Orson Curtis (1891) “History of the Twenty-fourth Michigan of the Iron Brigade”, p290; John Pullen (1957) “The Twentieth Maine”, p238;
  47. Douglas, p312.
  48. Schulte, Battle of Hatcher’s Run webpages, The Battle of Hatcher’s Run (or Dabney’s Mill): February 5-7, 1865 — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Trudeau, p320; Sherrill, p XXX; John Horn (1993) “The Petersburg Campaign” p206; A. Wilson Greene (2008) “The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion”, p104; Art Bergeron (1998), “The Battle of Hatcher’s Run,” Civil War Magazine, issue 67, p44-49; Jerry Korn (1987), “Pursuit to Appomattox” Time Life Series, p27-33; all mention that Gen. Finegan was leading Mahone’s Division at this battle. Bearss, p215, doesn’t mention Mahone at all and simply refers to Finegan’s division. The battle-maps in: Trudeau, p301; A. Wilson Greene (2008) “The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion”, p103; Steven Stanley (2015) Civil War Trust, The Battle of Hatcher’s Run February 5th 1865 map, civil war trust map hatchers run february 5th civilwar.org – Bing images; Art Bergeron (1998), “The Battle of Hatcher’s Run,” Civil War Magazine, issue 67, p46; CWPT battlefield site boards, all depict a “Finegan” icon. In Bearss, the battle-map (for February 5th) on p189, curiously has a small “Mahone” label near Heth’s brigades, and a Finegan label on what appears to be a brigade icon retreating to the Rebel defenses. His map (for February 6th) on p207, just has a Finegan (division) icon arriving at the battle. I have found two modern maps that exclusively use “Mahone” and avoid “Finegan”; namely: Wooddell, p436; and the CWPT (2005) February 5th map The Battle of Hatcher’s Run CWPT Map — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  1. O.R., series 1, vol 46, p1182. They are also missing in NARA (1973).
  2. Hawks, Mahones’ Division webpages for January and February 1865, Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com); Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, February 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com).
  3. Hawks, Mahones’ Division webpages from August 1864 – February 1865. Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, August 1864 (civilwarintheeast.com); Schulte, webpage for 8th Fla, 8th Florida Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  4. Both Trudeau p320; and Schulte, Battle of Hatcher’s Run webpages, The Battle of Hatcher’s Run (or Dabney’s Mill): February 5-7, 1865 — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com), specifically ignore Finegan’s Brigade. A more complete picture is provided by: Waters and Edmonds (2013) “A Small but Spartan Band: The Florida Brigade in Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia” p172-74. Ed Gleeson (1998). “Erin Go Gray, An Irish Rebel Trilogy” p36-39, also describe the actions of Finegan’s brigade commanded by Col. Lang on the 6th February fighting.
  5. Waters and Edmonds (2013) “A Small but Spartan Band: The Florida Brigade in Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia” p175-76. Interestingly, Trudeau makes no reference to Brevard ever taking brigade command (Trudeau, Organization of Forces, p499).
  6. Hawks Mahones’ Division Jan 1865 webpage, Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1865 (civilwarintheeast.com); Schulte, 10th Fla webpage, 10th Florida Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); J. J. Dickison (1899) Confederate Military History, Vol 11.2, Florida (Clement Evans, Ed.) p160. Waters and Edmonds (2013) Ibid p“174-75.
  7. Jenny Goellnitz (1998-2005) “Biography of Gen. Nathaniel Harris and Then A.P. Hill Came Up – Biography of Nathan Harris (aphillcsa.com), This website was closed in March 2021; Military Wiki, Nathaniel Harris, Nathaniel H. Harris | Military Wiki | Fandom (wikia.org).
  8. Official Records (Addendum Reports), vol 46, serial number 95, p717- 21, “Postwar account by Brig-Gen N. H. Harris CS Army of the Battle of Hatcher’s Run, February 6th 1865”.
  9. Schulte, reproduction of an article initially written by Private Frank Foote (1884) of the 48th Miss regiment, “The death grapple at Petersburg: the last days of Harris’ Mississippi Brigade”, NP: September 24, 1884 The Clarion (Jackson, MS): The Death Grapple at Petersburg: Last Days of Harris’ Mississippi Brigade, Part 3 — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Championhilz (2018), “Those who blazed a road to glory: Lt-Colonel Thomas Manlove remembers his men,” “Those Who Blazed a Road to Glory:” Lt. Colonel Thomas B. Manlove Remembers His Men – Mississippians in the Confederate Army (wordpress.com) ; Philadelphia Inquirer, 13th February 1865, Correspondent Edward Crapsey letter regarding the battle of Hatcher’s Run; Official Records (Addendum Reports), vol 46, serial number 95, p718, “Postwar account by Brig-Gen N. H. Harris CS Army of the Battle of Hatcher’s Run, February 6th 1865”.
  1. Hawks, Mahone’s Division November and December 1864 Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, November 1864 (civilwarintheeast.com); Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, December 1864 (civilwarintheeast.com); Schulte, 12th Miss webpage, 12th Mississippi Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); National Park Service, Battle Unit Details, 12th Miss regiment,  Battle Unit Details – The Civil War (U.S. National Park Service) (nps.gov).
  2. Civil War Talk (2014) “Confederate Brig-Gen John C. Sanders from Alabama” Confederate Brig. General John C. C. Sanders from Alabama | Soldiers, Politicians, & Other Men (civilwartalk.com).
  3. Paul Branch (1986) “William H Forney”, NCPedia, Forney, William Henry | NCpedia; Brett Derbes (2012) “William Forney”, Encyclopedia of Alabama, William Forney | Encyclopedia of Alabama.
  4. Trudeau, p320, refers to the “Alabamians of Sanders’ Brigade (Col. Forney in command)”; Waters and Edmonds (2013) “A Small but Spartan Band: The Florida Brigade in Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia” p172-73, has a “Forney” brigade label on a map and in the text refers to “Brig-Gen. Forney commanding Sanders’ Alabamians”. Forney was only a Colonel at the time of the battle. Schulte, Hatcher’s Run webpages, The Battle of Hatcher’s Run (or Dabney’s Mill): February 5-7, 1865 — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com), refers to “Sanders’ Alabamians” with no mention of Forney at all. Ed Gleeson (1998). “Erin Go Gray, An Irish Rebel Trilogy” p36-39, has a “Forney” label on a battle-map and correctly states that Forney was leading Sanders’ Brigade. Other modern texts of the battle, including the longest and most detailed account by Bearss, do not mention the specific brigades of Mahone’s Division.
  5. Paul Branch (1986) “William H Forney”, NCPedia, Forney, William Henry | NCpedia; John Eicher and David Eicher (2001) “Civil war high commands” p240; Brett Derbes (2012) “William Forney”, Encyclopedia of Alabama, William Forney | Encyclopedia of Alabama.       Forney was not promoted to Brig-Gen. on November 8th 1864 as reported by Hawks,10th Ala webpage, 10th Alabama Infantry Regiment (civilwarintheeast.com).
  6. Schulte, 9th Ala webpage, 9th Alabama Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Hawks, 9th Ala webpage, History of the 9th Alabama Volunteer Infantry Regiment in the Civil War (civilwarintheeast.com).
  7. Hawks,10th Ala webpage, 10th Alabama Infantry Regiment (civilwarintheeast.com); Schulte, 10th Ala webpage, 10th Alabama Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com)
  8. Schulte,11th Ala webpage, 11th Alabama Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  9. Hawks, webpage for 13th Ala, History of the 13th Alabama Infantry Regiment in the Civil War (civilwarintheeast.com); Schulte, 13th Ala webpage, 13th Alabama Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  10. The Alabama in the Civil War Message Board, Re: Co D 14th ALA Infantry (history-sites.com); Schulte, 14th Ala webpage, 14th Alabama Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  11. Moxley Sorrel (1905) “Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer.”
  12. Moxley Sorrel (1905) “Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer” p173-74; Russell Brown (2015) New Georgia Encyclopedia, Ambrose Wright (1826-1872) Ambrose Wright (1826-1872) | New Georgia Encyclopedia; Jenny Goellnitz (1998-2005) “Biography of G. Moxley Sorrel” And Then A.P. Hill Came Up – Biography of Gilbert Moxley Sorrel (aphillcsa.com), this website was closed in March 2021.
  13. Moxley Sorrel (1905) “Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer”, p179; Hawks, Mahone’s division February webpage, Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, February 1863 (civilwarintheeast.com).
  14. Trudeau, Organization of Forces, p499.
  15. Hawks, Mahone’s Division January 1865 webpage, Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, January 1863 (civilwarintheeast.com); Schulte, 10th Georgia battalion webpage, 10th Georgia Battalion Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  16. Schulte, 64th Ga webpage, 64th Georgia Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com); Hawks, Mahone’s Division, February 1865, Mahone’s Division, Third Army Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, February 1863 (civilwarintheeast.com).
  17. Military Wiki, “David A. Weisiger”, David A. Weisiger | Military Wiki | Fandom (wikia.org)
  18. Schulte, 16th Va webpage, 16th Virginia Infantry — The Siege of Petersburg Online (beyondthecrater.com).
  19. John Horn (1993) “The Petersburg Campaign” p202.

 

 

About the Author

Photo of Dr. Nigel Lambert at Petersburg National Battlefield

Visiting Petersburg National Park (Oct 2015)

Dr Nigel Lambert is British and lives near Norwich, England. Semi-retired, Nigel is a biochemist by profession, although from the turn of this century he has been involved in health research from a social perspective. A life-long Civil War enthusiast, he has been privileged to visit many of the wonderful battlefields on several occasions. A recent chance encounter with a civil war rifle ignited his interest in the battle of Hatcher’s Run. Surprised by the sparse and conflicting literature on the battle, he decided to employ his scientific knowhow to create this series of articles exploring the Rebel Order of Battle for Hatcher’s Run.

 

 

 

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