ITINERARY: 88th Pennsylvania

   

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Siege of Petersburg Itinerary: 88th Pennsylvania

Unit Affiliation: (2), 3, V

June 1864

June 13, 1864

LEFT White Oak Swamp on the night of June 13, marched all night, and encamped near Charles City Court-House, remaining here until daylight of the 16th1

June 14, 1864

… encamped near Charles City Court-House… 2

Arrive at Charles City Courthouse at 11 am and camp 2 miles from James River3

June 15, 1864

… encamped near Charles City Court-House… 4

June 16, 1864

…remaining here until daylight of the 16th, when we marched to the James River, and at two P.M. boarded the steamer John Brooks and crossed the river. Fell in and marched all night, halting at three A.M.5

June 17, 1864

After a very brief rest and an abbreviated breakfast, again fell in and took position supporting the 2d Corps, but in the night moved back out of range.6

Trenches of Bermuda Hundred at 9 am, outer defenses of Petersburg at 11 am, left Turkey Bend at 4 pm, supported Ledlie’s Division, Ninth Corps during night attack.7

June 18, 1864

On the morning of the 18th the division moved to the front to assault the Confederate fortifications. Advanced through an orchard, over the railroad, took a hill within 200 yards of the enemy, and then made a grand swoop for his main line, all this under a fire that thinned the ranks at every step ; but the line on our flank not marching as fast as the regiment, the charge, like a breaking wave, spent its force, and the men, disdaining to run, dropped behind a slight wattling fence and opened on the rebs. Still, the command was to forward “Forward Baxter’s brigade;” but the experienced eyes of the veterans had taken the measure of those frowning forts, and, knowing that it was a hopeless job, not a man moved…8

June 19, 1864

Threw up breastworks, and on the afternoon of Sunday, the 19th, were relieved and retired in line behind the railroad. Lay here doing picket duty until the 24th9

June 20, 1864

Engaged and under fire throughout the day10

June 21, 1864

Confederates probe brigade picket line (where specifically?)11

June 22, 1864

Skirmishing and under fire all day. Brigade charged Confederate positions across Norfolk and Petersburg RR at nightfall, found it evacuated, and held position.12

June 23, 1864

Detailed for picket duty13

June 24, 1864

Lay here doing picket duty until the 24th, when we resumed the march under a heavy shelling, halting near the Jerusalem plank road.14

March three miles to the left, where Crawford’s Division (including the 88th) replaces Gibbon’s Division of Second Corps. 88th on forward picket duty.15

June 25, 1864

On June 25 the 12th Massachusetts left for home, time having expired. Good-by, boys; there was no better regiment branded U. S. than the 12th. From May 5 to June 25 fifty days it had been under fire forty-one times and lost 172 men. Only eighty-five men left with the colors. What a gory, glorious record! On the 25th in reserve, on picket at night, and remained there until the 27th, making a treaty with our friends the enemy, not to fire on “you-uns, if you-uns won’t fire on we-uns.”16

88th remains on picket duty, but heat prevents much skirmishing.17

June 26, 1864

88th remains on picket duty, but has “no fire” agreement with Confederates.18

June 27, 1864

Informal cease fire still in effect. 88th relieved from picket and retires behind fortifications.19

June 28, 1864

Baxter’s Brigade shifts to the right at 7 pm.20

June 29, 1864

Nothing of note21

June 30, 1864

Crawford’s Third Division forms along Jerusalem Plank Road and occupies Ft. Crawford, staying in these positions until July 12. 88th PA detailed for picket duty opposite the 23rd NC, which it fought at Gettysburg a year earlier.22

 

July 1864

July 1, 1864

Friday, July 1, very hot, water scarce; regiment engaged all day and night building works on the right of the Jerusalem plank road, continuing in this place for several weeks…23

July 2, 1864

Nothing of note24

July 3, 1864

Heavy cannonading heard in front of Ninth Corps.25

July 4, 1864

…meantime celebrating the Glorious Fourth with flying colors and enjoying an extra ration of good things issued by the Sanitary Commission. 26

July 5, 1864

Artillery fire in 88th PA’s vicinity, but no casualties.27

July 6, 1864

Nothing of note.28

July 7, 1864

On the 7th the regiment moved to the right of the brigade; lively firing; several men wounded.29

Subjected to artillery fire, five or six men wounded.30

July 8, 1864

Heavy skirmishing night of 7th into 8th.  Artillery fire from morning until 4 pm.31

July 9, 1864

Artillery fire in afternoon.32

July 10, 1864

Heavy firing noted in direction of Petersburg.33

July 11, 1864

Baxter’s Brigade shelled by artillery.34

July 12, 1864

On the 12th the brigade moved to the rear, the regiment deploying along the works and filling its place; the brigade returned on the 15th35

88th PA and a First Brigade regiment (which one?) are left behind to man two redoubts on left flank (which ones?).36

July 13, 1864

Nothing of note.37

July 14, 1864

88th PA’s picket line shelled throughout the day.38

July 15, 1864

… the brigade returned on the 15th, when we were assigned the job of building Fort Crawford and some contiguous breastworks.39

July 16, 1864

Nothing of note.40

July 17, 1864

Inspected by Brigade Staff Officer and detailed to build abates.41

July 18, 1864

Constructing works and abates.42

July 19, 1864

Constructing works and abates. Heavy cannonading heard to the right.43

July 20, 1864

Constructing works and abates. Skirmishing for Baxter’s pickets.44

July 21, 1864

Constructing works and abates.45

July 22, 1864

On July 22 the major of the 107th Pennsylvania took temporary command of the 88th46

Major Henry J. Sheafer of the 107th PA detailed to command 88th PA.47

July 23, 1864

88th PA improves their camp while light skirmishing and artillery fire occurs.48

July 24, 1864

Posted in lines in anticipation of an attack.49

July 25, 1864

Heavy rain destroys 88th PA camp as they spend the day in trenches waiting for an attack with heavy skirmishing out front.50

July 26, 1864

…the major of the 107th Pennsylvania took temporary command of the 88th, and on the 26th he treated the boys to a dress parade, a rare thing in these days, but no rations. It is needless to say that the men would have been more thankful for the rations.51

Confederates fire 8-10 artillery shells at Fort [Crawford?].52

July 27, 1864

Brigade pickets suffer artillery fire.53

July 28, 1864

Brigade pickets suffer artillery fire.54

July 29, 1864

On July 29 only one shell fell in camp, this being so remarkable as to cause mention in Sergeant McKnight s diary. The 13th Massachusetts, another gallant regiment that had been closely identified with our brigade, went home on the 14th, its three years arduous service having expired. Good-by, boys.55

Baxter’s Second Brigade under arms at 3 pm to repel attack which never comes.56

July 30, 1864

On Saturday, July 30, 1864, the regiment was up at two A.M., and drawing forty rounds extra ammunition, took the place of the 94th New York in Fort Crawford, while the division was massed in the rear, to assist in the mine explosion. The sad story of that abortive assault need not be retold here, except to say that credit for the defeat should be again ascribed to General John Barleycorn.57

July 31, 1864

Nothing of note.58

 

August 1864

August 1, 1864

The early days of August were times of feverish and wearing expectancy to the boys, who were in line nearly every morning at three o’clock, waiting for something terrible to turn up; so the wilting days passed, sometimes on picket, sometimes in camp, until the middle of the month…59

88th detailed to skirmish line duty, and remained there until August 15. All is quiet today.60

August 2, 1864

Nothing of note.61

August 3, 1864

Nothing of note.62

August 4, 1864

88th PA realizes they will be on picket for a long time and set up tents.63

August 5, 1864

Nothing of note.64

August 6, 1864

Nothing of note.65

August 7, 1864

Nothing of note.66

August 8, 1864

Nothing of note.67

August 9, 1864

A cold blowing rainstorm discomfits the 88th PA, still on picket.68

August 10, 1864

Nothing of note.69

August 11, 1864

…the best thing happening in the interim being the visit of the paymaster on the 11th, who gladdened the boys hearts with two months pay.70

August 12, 1864

Nothing of note.71

August 13, 1864

Nothing of note.72

August 14, 1864

Nothing of note.73

August 15, 1864

All of Fifth Corps pulled from the fortifications and returned to camp in preparation for Grant’s upcoming Fourth Offensive. Colonel Coulter, 11th PA, assumes command of 2/3/V/AotP.74

August 16, 1864

Heavy artillery fire in Fifth Corps front and to their right.75

August 17, 1864

Orders to break camp are received but are rescinded. Major Sheafer of the 107th PA turns over command to Captain Jacob Houder.76

August 18, 1864

On August 18 the cavalry and the 5th Corps struck for the Weldon Railroad, reaching the Yellow Tavern about ten A.M. The 1st Division was engaged in destroying the railroad, while our [Third] division, deploying on the right of the road, pressed the enemy through the woods a half-mile towards Petersburg. Then, under a heavy rain and a lively fire, both extremely uncomfortable circumstances, we lay in line of battle all night, expecting an assault.77

Colonel Coulter relieved of brigade command at end of day, and Col. Wheelock of the 97th NY takes over.78

August 19, 1864

On the 19th, Crawford s division again advanced through the thick woods, after being relieved about seven A.M., and built a line of breastworks, repeating this pastime until three light lines had been thrown up. Meantime, the Confederates were not idle; massing their troops at a weak point in the Union line, they burst through, while Crawford s men, in the dense woods, all unconscious of peril on the flanks and rear, repelled every attempt of the enemy to drive our line by an assault in front. The first intimation that the men had of the enemy being in their rear was the unexpected appearance of a squad of Confederates, led by a hatless and excited officer, coming directly through the woods from a direction that every man in the 88th was fully convinced was the rear. They were immediately halted and ordered to surrender, but decidedly objected, explaining that we were the ones to surrender, as they had us surrounded; this story was not credited, and, taking the officer’s sword, Sergeant John Wallace, with an escort, proceeded with the prisoners back through the woods, when they ran into a moving column of the enemy, and were in turn captured and run Dixieward without further ceremony. To make matters worse, the Union artillery posted near the Yellow Tavern, seeing the Confederates in our rear, opened fire directly upon the woods, and between this fire and that of the enemy it appeared as if Crawford’s division would be wiped out, a veritable case of between the devil and the deep sea; but the Confederates, sweeping across our rear, quickly disappeared, capturing in their erratic course a large number of the 5th Corps who were so unlucky as to be in their way.

Among our men captured were John Wallace, Harry Durfer, William Hutchinson, Jacob Drexle, Joseph Hock, Henry Arnold, William Carey, Morris Robbins, James Miller, Frank Swavely, Charles Yerger, Isaac Eyrich, William D. Clemens, Reuben Neider, Enoch Shaw, Ben Goodheart, and John and Lewis Waterman, in all, about thirty; of these, the last eight died in captivity. Clemens and Neider were especially well known to all the regiment on account of their tall figures and soldierly appearance, and they, with thousands of others, were starved to death. In the stockade, Neider shared the scanty blanket belonging to Robbins, and on the morning of December 28, when Morris awoke, Neider was dead in his arms.

After getting out of the Wilderness, the brigade reformed and pushed in again, when Captain Jacob Houder, a most estimable and gallant officer, commanding the regiment, was struck in the head by a musket ball and instantly killed. Houder was a favorite young officer who had been identified with the regiment and had won his shoulder-straps by hard service. Coming so soon after the death of the lamented Rhoads, the men felt the loss of this officer keenly, and very mournfully another lowly grave was fashioned, the boys tenderly laying their fallen chief in his narrow bed.

That all the brigade was not captured was due to the skill of Colonel Wheelock and the valuable services of Captain S. H. Martin, Private Threapleton (Boocock), and others of the 88th, who, at the request of the colonel, reconnoitred the woods and located the position of the enemy.

The 5th Corps now connected with the 9th Corps, and, throwing up works, planted itself firmly across the road in a manner that said we have come to stay. On account of the incessant rains since the 13th, the condition of the roads was frightful, the wagons stalling and the soldiers sticking in the mire…79

After Houder’s death, Major Henry J. Sheafer of the 107th PA again resumes command temporarily.80

August 20, 1864

…but the boys understood the value of substantial defences, and during the 20th were diligently employed in strengthening the lines, and it was well for us that we did so…81

88th PA were relieved at 11 am to go dig works on the right next to Gouverneur Warren’s headquarters.82

August 21, 1864

…for on the 21st— Sunday—Lee sent Hill s corps with instructions to drive Warren off. Hill concentrated thirty cannon on our left and opened a wicked fire, following with an assault by his infantry, which was easily repulsed; then he moved farther to the left, intending to strike the line in left and rear, and launched his battalions to the attack; but they were repulsed everywhere with heavy loss, including many prisoners and colors.

The Union line at this point was somewhat in the form of a horse-shoe, the position assigned to the regiment being on the right; consequently, when the enemy opened fire it took the men in the back, and for protection they were compelled to take position outside of the breastworks. Through all this fearful hurricane of shot and shell General Warren rode as leisurely and calmly as if nothing was the matter, while the shells were knocking the stacked muskets sky-high, tearing off legs and arms, and smashing the bodies of the unfortunate victims into unrecognizable masses of blood, flesh, and bones. After this bloody repulse Lee gave it up, having lost about 3000 men; the loss of the 5th Corps was about 4500, over 3000 being taken prisoners, the 88th having thirty-two killed, wounded, and captured.83

August 22, 1864

The next few days were spent in building more works, cleaning camp, cleansing uniforms, and tidying up generally…84

Portions of the above paragraph may euphemistically refer to also burying the dead of both sides which littered the battlefield.85

August 23, 1864

…and on August 23 fresh bread was issued; nobody could remember when the last had been received.86

At 8 am, 88th PA and the rest of Second Brigade, Third Division, Fifth Corps ordered to destroy Weldon RR from Globe Tavern north in the direction of Petersburg for two miles, and they do before returning.87

August 24, 1864

88th PA stays in the fortifications around Globe Tavern.88

August 25, 1864

On August 25, 1864, the soldiers were called to arms at three A.M., and after some delay, head of column was directed towards Petersburg and passed through the thickets where the recent battles had been fought, the trees and saplings being much scarred by the balls of the contestants. A column of the enemy was reported coming down the road, and line of battle was formed; but the Confederates not appearing, the column countermarched, passing the Yellow or Globe Tavern and marching about a mile towards Ream’s Station, where heavy firing was heard, then halted and threw up earthworks; it was hard labor handling this soggy earth.89

Captain Edmund Y. Patterson seems to have taken over for Sheafer by at least August 25.90

88th PA and rest of brigade build earthworks near the Perkins House.91

First and Second Brigades, Third Division, Fifth Corps are combined and called the Second Brigade, Third Division, Fifth Corps.  A new First Brigade is formed out of the 190th and 191st Pennsylvania regiments, the remnants of the famous Pennsylvania Reserves.92

August 26, 1864

Next day a treat, in the shape of whiskey and quinine, potatoes, onions, and fresh bread, was issued; we then moved from the works and went into camp. Details were made daily to build Fort Wadsworth and some other heavy earthworks.

The regiment now had about 150 present, but as the time of many who had first enlisted would soon expire, the command was shortly to be still further reduced in numbers.93

88th PA remains in fortifications.94

August 27, 1864

Nothing of note.95

August 28, 1864

Nothing of note.96

August 29, 1864

Nothing of note.97

August 30, 1864

Second Brigade ordered to provide 400 men to build a fort near Blick’s House.  Author Michael Ayoub believes this is probably what became Fort Wadsworth. I agree.98

August 31, 1864

88th PA and others continue to work on Fort Wadsworth until 5 pm.  88th PA moved back to intrenchments they had occupied on August 24.  There was considerable picket firing in the area that afternoon.99

 

 

September 1864

September 1, 1864

Brigade still at Weldon Railroad.  Called out to march towards Ream’s Station at 6 (am?), but eventually called back and ended up back near Warren’s HQ and eventually in their old works.100

September 2, 1864

The [Third] division [of Fifth Corps] broke camp on September 2, and, preceded by the cavalry, pushed out to the left through the woods, thickets, swamps, jungles, and briers for which this part of the country is famous. The column thridded the unknown wilderness very carefully, and as the long line wound its sinuous way through forest and clearing, every man was as silent as the grave, communing with his own thoughts and wondering what fate had in store for him. But after marching a mile or two the order was given to about-face and go back to camp; then every tongue was loosed, and the procession that a little while before was as silent as a funeral broke out in noisy jest and cheerful talk. It seemed as though the men were glad that they were alive.101

[SOPO Editor’s Note: The eventual cavalry skirmish which resulted after the cavalry went out past the 88th PA and its division was called the Reconnaissance beyond Yellow Tavern, on Weldon Railroad in the Official Records.]

September 3, 1864

88th PA and the Second Brigade work on fortifications.102

September 4, 1864

Nothing of note.103

September 5, 1864

On the 5th of September, while cutting timber, a tree fell on Corporal Hoffman, of Company A, inflicting mortal injuries…104

Captain Henry Whiteside is now in command of the 88th PA.105

September 6, 1864

… and on the following day Patrick Clickett, of Company K, was injured by a similar accident, but recovered.106

The Second Brigade and the 88th PA ordered to where the Fifth and Ninth Corps lines met, and ordered to build fortifications.107

September 7, 1864

Nothing of note.108

September 8, 1864

Nothing of note.109

September 9, 1864

Nothing of note.110

September 10, 1864

Nothing of note.111

September 11, 1864

Nothing of note.112

September 12, 1864

Nothing of note.113

September 13, 1864

Second Brigade marches to Fifth Corps headquarters for Medal of Honor presentation to Private George Reed, 11th PA, who captured colors of 24th NC at Globe Tavern on August 21, 1864.114

September 14, 1864

Nothing of note.115

September 15, 1864

Another movement to Poplar Grove Church was made on September 15, the Confederates being pressed back some three or four miles, when the division returned to camp.116

Baxter’s Brigade and 800 Union cavalry made a reconnaissance to Poplar Spring Church.  Moved northwest along wooden road from Ft. Davis and ran into Confederate cavalry on Vaughan Road. Confederates retreat to fortifications at Peebles Farm, where a skirmish ensues.  The 88th PA lost 1 killed and five wounded in the affair.117

A map of the area for this specific reconnaissance is located in the Official Records.118

September 16, 1864

On September 16 moved camp to near the left fort, behind the breastworks, and remained in the vicinity of Fort Dushane for several days, doing fatigue and picket duty and eating Uncle Samuel’s rations when the quartermaster was kind enough to remember us. Some of our officers were never appreciated by the men, the quarter master being in this list; sometimes they were condemned very unjustly. But the boys must have something to growl about and somebody to growl at, and the quartermaster filled the bill as well as any other officer; the men certainly gave him “bally-hoo” on many and various occasions.119

88th PA garrisons Fort Dushane and Fort Wadsworth.120

September 17, 1864

Men whose enlistments have expired and who did not reenlist are mustered out and sent home from September 17-20, 1864.121

September 18, 1864

Adjutant Detre writes to Governor Curtin of Pennsylvania askinf for promotion to Major and command of the regiment.122

September 19, 1864

Nothing of note.123

September 20, 1864

Nothing of note.124

September 21, 1864

Nothing of note.125

September 22, 1864

Nothing of note.126

September 23, 1864

Nothing of note.127

September 24, 1864

Nothing of note.128

September 25, 1864

Nothing of note.129

September 26, 1864

Nothing of note.130

September 27, 1864

On September 27 the monotony of camp life was broken by the accidental explosion of a caisson while a battery was on drill, killing one and wounding seven men. The same day a flag-pole 130 feet high was raised at Fort Dushane, so named after an officer who had been killed in action on this ground [N. T. Dushane]. 131

September 28, 1864

Nothing of note.132

September 29, 1864

On the 29th the monotony was further disturbed by a reconnoissance of the [Second] brigade [Third Division, Fifth Corps] towards Ream’s Station, but the command returned in the evening; nobody hurt, though under fire.133

11th PA, 88th PA, 90th PA, 39th MA, and 104th NY conduct another reconnaissance of Poplar Spring Church area, again driving Confederates into their fortifications near Peebles Farm.  There were no casualties in the Second Brigade. This was a day in advance of the large Battle of Peebles Farm.134

September 30, 1864

Second Brigade, Third Division, Fifth Corps is detailed to guard Fort Wadsworth, Fort Howard, and the lines in between while Grant’s Fifth Offensive gets underway southwest of Petersburg.  The 88th PA is detailed to guard Fort Dushane.135

 

 

October 1864

After the departure of the three years men [presumably sometime in October 1864] affairs in camp were very quiet, with the exception of an occasional expedition in the general direction of the South Side Railroad ; on one of these trips the enemy was encountered at Treble s farm, but Adjutant Detre (in command ) brought the regiment safely back to Fort Dushane.136

October 1, 1864

Second Brigade stays put and mans the fortifications along the Weldon RR.  They stay in this position until October 26. Captain Whiteside, who had been in command, is mustered out. First Lt. Lawrence takes command.137

October 2, 1864

Nothing of note.138

October 3, 1864

88th PA on picket duty.139

October 4, 1864

Nothing of note.140

October 5, 1864

Nothing of note.141

October 6, 1864

Nothing of note.142

October 7, 1864

Nothing of note.143

October 8, 1864

Heavy skirmishing fire throughout the day.144

October 9, 1864

Nothing of note.145

October 10, 1864

Adjutant Cyrus Detre, now commanding the regiment, mentions ninety new recruits have joined the 88th PA.146

October 11, 1864

Nothing of note.147

October 12, 1864

Nothing of note.148

October 13, 1864

Nothing of note.149

October 14, 1864

Nothing of note.150

October 15, 1864

Nothing of note.151

October 16, 1864

Nothing of note.152

October 17, 1864

Nothing of note.153

October 18, 1864

Thirteen new recruits are added to the 88th PA.154

October 19, 1864

Captain Joseph Lawrence assumes command of 88th PA.155

October 20, 1864

Nothing of note.156

October 21, 1864

Nothing of note.157

October 22, 1864

Nothing of note.158

October 23, 1864

Nothing of note.159

October 24, 1864

88th PA receives 16 new recruits.160

October 25, 1864

Nothing of note.161

October 26, 1864

Nothing of note.162

October 27, 1864

Second Brigade, Third Division, Fifth Corps remains behind to guard four miles of Fifth Corps trenches.  Two divisions of Fifth Corps move to left during Grant’s Sixth Offensive against Petersburg.163

October 28, 1864

As Fifth Corps returns, Second Brigade, Third Division reassembles after guarding the entire corps front.164

October 29, 1864

Nothing of note.165

October 30, 1864

Nothing of note.166

October 31, 1864

Nothing of note.167

 

 

November 1864

In November 200 conscripts joined the regiment, being the first important addition of recruits since the command had been in service. This accession brought promotion to many deserving soldiers who had been debarred advancement because the regiment had been so weak in numbers, many privates attaining non-commissioned rank and the following changes being made in the higher grades:

Company A, Lieutenant Ninesteel to captain, Lieutenant Kram to first lieutenant, Sergeant Koch to lieutenant.

Company C. Sergeant Thwait to captain, Sergeant Herron to lieutenant.

Company D. Sergeant Hunter to lieutenant.

Company E. Lieutenant Gilligan to captain, Sergeant D. J. Lehman to lieutenant.

Company F. Lieutenant Clevinger to captain.

Company G. Lieutenant Gardiner to captain, Sergeant Bright to lieutenant.

Company H. Lieutenant Lawrence to captain, Sergeant McChaliker to lieutenant.

Company I. Lieutenant Copestick to captain.

Company K. Lieutenant Martin to captain, Sergeant McKnight to lieutenant.168

The 88th PA spent the month of November in the trenches near the Weldon Railroad.169

 

November 1, 1864

Nothing of note.170

November 2, 1864

Nothing of note.171

November 3, 1864

Nothing of note.172

November 4, 1864

88th PA casts 197 votes in the 1864 Presidential election.  Of these, 69% vote for Lincoln over McClellan.173

November 5, 1864

Nothing of note.174

November 6, 1864

Nothing of note.175

November 7, 1864

88th PA receives 50 new recruits.176

November 8, 1864

Nothing of note.177

November 9, 1864

Nothing of note.178

November 10, 1864

Nothing of note.179

November 11, 1864

88th Pennsylvania receives 200 recruits, all conscripts.180

November 12, 1864

Nothing of note.181

November 13, 1864

Captain Lawrence is appointed acting commander, but his abilities are questioned, and soon (when exactly?), Lt. Col. Haines of the 11th PA is assigned to command.182

November 14, 1864

Nothing of note.183

November 15, 1864

Nothing of note.184

November 16, 1864

Nothing of note.185

November 17, 1864

Nothing of note.186

November 18, 1864

Nothing of note.187

November 19, 1864

Nothing of note.188

November 20, 1864

Nothing of note.189

November 21, 1864

Nothing of note.190

November 22, 1864

Captain Lawrence goes away on a leave of absence.  Adjutant Detre assumes command of the 88th PA.191

November 23, 1864

Nothing of note.192

November 24, 1864

Nothing of note.193

November 25, 1864

Nothing of note.194

November 26, 1864

The 90th PA is mustered out.195

November 27, 1864

Nothing of note.196

November 28, 1864

Nothing of note.197

November 29, 1864

Nothing of note.198

November 30, 1864

Nothing of note.199

 

 

December 1864

December 1, 1864

BG Baxter issues orders for the camp routine now that the army is settling into winter quarters.200

December 2, 1864

Nothing of note.201

December 3, 1864

Nothing of note.202

December 4, 1864

Acting commander Cyrus Detre is discharged.203

December 5, 1864

Second Brigade, which had been in trenches just east of Halifax Road, was pulled back to camp along Jerusalem Plank Road. The Fifth Corps is being repositioned for the Stony Creek Raid.204

December 6, 1864

Nothing of note.205

December 7, 1864

On December 7 the division marched down to the North Carolina border, on what is known as the apple-jack raid, each man having six days rations of food and unlimited rations of rain and mud, for it stormed almost every day while on the raid. The Johnnies were scattered and the railroad thoroughly destroyed as far as the Mulherrin [sic, Meherrin] River; then the mud-bespattered column halted and, meeting strong opposition, concluded to return.206

Crawford’s Third Division, Fifth Corps (and the 88th PA) crosses Warwick Swamp and reaches Nottoway River at 4 pm, crossing and camping for the night at Sussex Court House.  The Third Division is the only Union force to camp south of the Nottoway this night.  Captain Lawrence commands the regiment.  52 draftees join the regiment. 88th PA detailed as wagon guard overnight.207

December 8, 1864

Expedition reaches Halifax Road at 4 pm, resting there for two hours.  They reach and burn Jarratt’s Station, then start burning the railroad to the south.  The 88th PA is detailed for picket duty that night.208

December 9, 1864

Expedition continues moving south in the direction of Belfield and Hicksford, burning the Weldon Railroad as they go.  The 88th PA was detailed on picket duty that night.209

December 10, 1864

While coming back a force of cavalry acted as rear-guard, the 88th and 11th Pennsylvania, 97th New York, and 39th Massachusetts being thrown out as flankers. Presently the Confederate troopers following the column made a furious and unexpected charge upon the Union horsemen bringing up the rear, driving them in confusion up the road towards brigade head-quarters. The field and staff of the 88th were interested spectators of this rout, as the combatants came yelling and tearing along the muddy road, the buttermilk hunters having a fine time cutting and slashing at the Union troopers, and letting themselves out on the rebel yell to the full capacity of their healthy lungs. This humiliating scene thoroughly disgusted Adjutant Gilligan, and directing Dr. Shoemaker and the rest of the staff to seek protection at brigade head-quarters, he determined to stop the stampede. Drawing his sword, he rode boldly down to the fleeing mob, calling upon the Union troopers to halt and rally, but his appeal had no effect upon them. The confusion was so great, and our cavalry were in such haste to get the aid of the infantry, that they passed the lieutenant, and before he realized the situation he was in the midst of the Confederates, nearly every one of whom cut and lunged at him in the most spiteful manner. Gilligan was dazed at this kind of reception, but by parrying the vicious thrusts he managed to save his skin, until an unkempt and unwashed grayback rode within a few feet of Him and, presenting a navy revolver, ordered him to surrender. This the lieutenant did, but the Confederates were so intent on the fun they were having that they all chased off after our horsemen, leaving the captive alone in the road. They had not proceeded far before they received the fire of the infantry; then the whole squad came tearing back, the Union troopers now in pursuit. Gilligan saw them coming, and hoping to save himself from being taken south, he slipped off his horse and lay flat in the mire in the road. When the Johnnies reached him they had no time to stop, and though they tried to sabre him as he lay in the mire, he escaped without a scratch, being, however, completely covered with mud. The boys had seen him captured, and when he rode into the lines again, encased with mud from head to foot, he was received with shouts of welcome and laughter at the unique appearance he presented. This was Gilligan’s first and last attempt to rally cavalry men; he had enough and he knew it. To punish the pursuing squadrons a trap was laid for them, our infantry lying in ambush on the flanks, while the cavalry again allowed themselves to be chased along the road. The Confederate troopers took the bait, hook and all, and when the infantry rose and delivered a telling fire into their ranks at short range, what was left of them kept at a respectful distance during the remainder of the march, and the rear was not again molested.210

Warren turns the column around and begins heading back to Union lines.  A cold sleet begins to fall, making conditions miserable.  The 88th PA and the rest of Baxter’s Brigade serve as rear guard.  The 88th is on the right flank.  Captain Lawrence is in command of the regiment.  They skirmish with the Confederates all day, and repel at least one attack on their flank.  In addition, Edward Gilligan has his run-in with the Confederate cavalry, described above. Baxter’s men create an ambush which keeps the Confederates at a greater distance. Prisoners from the 3rd and 5th NC Cav. Are taken in the ambush.  The expedition reaches and camps at Sussex Court House that night.211

December 11, 1864

Union soldiers are found murdered by guerrillas.  Following this, Union soldiers fire Sussex Court House and many houses in the surrounding area on the return march.  The 88th PA spend the night camped next to a church (which one?).212

December 12, 1864

Last stage of the return is completed, and everyone is back by mid-afternoon.213

December 13, 1864

Nothing of note.214

December 14, 1864

The division returned to camp on December 14, many of the men with apple-jack in their canteens; hence the name given the raid. After the apple-jack raid the command settled down in winter-quarters, any extensive movement in this alluvial country being impossible, and only the usual hyemal work was done, enlivened by an occasional foray into the disputed territory when the weather permitted, Captain Lawrence being in command.215

December 15, 1864

The 88th PA goes into permanent winter quarters on and along Weldon Railroad near Globe Tavern.  They must cut logs and build their winter huts. 216

December 16, 1864

Building winter quarters.217

December 17, 1864

On December 17 details cut logs for winter-quarters…218

Building winter quarters.219

December 18, 1864

Building winter quarters.220

December 19, 1864

Building winter quarters.221

December 20, 1864

Building winter quarters.222

December 21, 1864

Nothing of note.223

December 22, 1864

Nothing of note.224

December 23, 1864

Nothing of note.225

December 24, 1864

… and on Christmas-eve the new huts were occupied.226

December 25, 1864

There were no stockings hung, nor any Santa Claus in that camp, nor turkey fixings that Christmas, the only luxury enjoyed being the dispensing with all drills in honor of the day.227

December 26, 1864

More improvements made to winter quarters.228

December 27, 1864

Nothing of note.229

December 28, 1864

Nothing of note.230

December 29, 1864

Nothing of note.231

December 30, 1864

Lt. Col. Haines asks for permission to go outside the lines to get more material for building winter quarters.  The request would be granted and the expedition organized for January 5, 1865.232

December 31, 1864

Nothing of note.233

 

 

January 1865

January 1, 1865

January 1, 1865, dawned pleasant and quiet…234

January 2, 1865

Capt. Ricahrd Clevinger insults BG Baxter publicly…235

January 3, 1865

…and is placed under arrest.236

January 4, 1865

Nothing of note.237

January 5, 1865

…on the 5th a detail with twelve wagons went four miles beyond the lines for boards to complete the quarters. It is needless to remark that in such business the 88th was eminently successful.238

January 6, 1865

Nothing of note.239

January 7, 1865

Nothing of note. 240

January 8, 1865

Nothing of note.241

January 9, 1865

Nothing of note.242

January 10, 1865

Nothing of note.243

January 11, 1865

Nothing of note.244

January 12, 1865

Nothing of note.245

January 13, 1865

Nothing of note.246

January 14, 1865

Nothing of note.247

January 15, 1865

Nothing of note.248

January 16, 1865

Nothing of note.249

January 17, 1865

Nothing of note.250

January 18, 1865

Nothing of note.251

January 19, 1865

Nothing of note.252

January 20, 1865

Nothing of note.253

January 21, 1865

Nothing of note.254

January 22, 1865

Nothing of note.255

January 23, 1865

Nothing of note.256

January 24, 1865

Nothing of note.257

January 25, 1865

Nothing of note.258

January 26, 1865

Nothing of note.259

January 27, 1865

Nothing of note.260

January 28, 1865

Nothing of note.261

January 29, 1865

Nothing of note.262

January 30, 1865

Nothing of note.263

January 31, 1865

Nothing of note.264

 

 

February 1865

February 1, 1865

Nothing of note.265

February 2, 1865

Nothing of note.266

February 3, 1865

Nothing of note.267

February 4, 1865

Warren’s Division is ordered to move as part of Grant’s Eighth Offensive, culminating in the Feb. 5-7, 1865 Battle of Hatcher’s Run.  Crawford orders his division to travel light, which will have adverse effects when the weather turns cold during the offensive.268

February 5, 1865

On February 5, by way of diversion, the brigade marched down the Weldon Railroad, destroying en route all property that gave comfort and shelter to the enemy, and lay in line of battle all night. Candor compels the statement that the term “lay” is a misnomer, as the boys had to walk around all night to keep from freezing, fires being prohibited.269

Crawford’s Division brings up the rear of the column.  They cross Rowanty Creek and camp on the Vaughan Road near Gravelly Run Farm.270

February 6, 1865

On the 6th marched across Hatcher s Run and bivouacked till noon, then formed line and pushed on towards the Boydton road, Baxter, with the 97th New York, 16th Maine, and 39th Massachusetts, in the first line, and the 11th and 88th Pennsylvania in the second. In this order they ran against Pegram’s division and a lively scrap ensued, Pegram being killed; but Mahone’s Confederate division flanking Crawford’s right, the whole division was forced back with loss. The woods were so dense that it was impossible to see far, and, remembering their rough experience in a similar position on the Weldon Railroad in August, the men were very reluctant about advancing in such a thicket, unless assured of prompt support. Ayers s division was assigned a position on the right of Crawford, but before his troops could get into line the enemy advanced, and the scattering shots of the skirmishers, followed by the long, steady ripple of line firing, announced that the battle had opened on the right, and taking Ayers before he could fully form to receive their onset, the Confederates broke his line, sending some of his troops back in disorder. The giving way of Ayers involved Crawford, the fire of the enemy quickly opening through the woods, and Baxter and the rest were forced back to near the run; but here the men rallied, and when the exultant Johnnies came dashing through the woods they received so severe a fire that they were brought to a stand very quickly. The Confederates then drew off, and the 5th Corps bivouacked for the night in this position, in the mud and rain, a most cheerless and miserable one, the men being scarcely able to keep from freezing to death.271

Lt. Col. Haines is wounded while leading the 88th PA and Capt. Aaron Bright assumes command. The 88th and the rst of Baxter’s Brigade spend the night on the south side of Hatcher’s Run.272

February 7, 1865

The troops were up early on the morning of the 7th; in truth, they were up all night, and a more disagreeable time it would be hard to conceive. Under the circumstances, to have lain down and slept would have resulted in death.

After a not very exhilarating feast on hardtack, hog fat, and water, the muskets were put in order, line of battle formed, and we got to work to earn the day’s wages. The line pushed through the woods and bogs, the rain freezing as it fell and coating everything trees, brush, soldiers, and ground with a sheet of ice. The men were chilled to the bone, but there was no help for it, so the line painfully and slowly swept on. Now, it happened that the rebs were anxious to learn what these lost children of the 5th Corps wanted in this debatable land, and about the time that the Union line advanced, the divisions of Pegram, Mahone, and Evans also moved forward, the result being a sharp fight in the woods, the Johnnies being pressed back to their works. Here Baxter remained close up to the enemy s line until the loth, when the 2d Corps occupied the line permanently, the 5th returning to camp.

The loss of the 5th Corps and the cavalry in this movement was officially given as 1165 killed and wounded and 154 missing. The loss in the 88th was partially reported as follows: Killed, C. McNulty, James Phillips, James Yoder, H. Jaques, E. Phillips, F. Monroe, J. Bryner, M. Volkir. Among the wounded were Captain Martin, Frank Charles, August Kissinger, William A. Boyd, and Mortimer Wisham.

This was the initial battle of the recruits who had lately joined the regiment, and it may be said to their credit that they acquitted themselves very well, being undoubtedly influenced by the personal example of the veterans, all of whom behaved with signal bravery, Sergeant William A. Sands, of Company G, being especially mentioned and honored with a furlough, which, in view of the stirring events quickly following, he declined.273

The 88th PA and Baxter’s Brigade participated in two attacks near Dabney’s Mill.  Retired from battlefield between 9 and 10 pm.274

February 8, 1865

After this little episode the boys remained in camp attending to business, when there was any, until the 25th of March…275

Baxter’s Brigade moved to the north side of Hatcher’s Run.  The rest of the brigade pickets, but the 88th is allowed to camp.276

February 9, 1865

The 88th PA goes on picket duty, relieving the 107th PA.277

February 10, 1865

88th PA relieved from picket and goes into camp.278

February 11, 1865

88th goes on picket duty.279

February 12, 1865

Aaron Bright commands the regiment and files the CMR.280

February 13, 1865

Nothing of note.281

February 14, 1865

Nothing of note.282

February 15, 1865

Nothing of note.283

February 16, 1865

Nothing of note.284

February 17, 1865

Nothing of note.285

February 18, 1865

Nothing of note.286

February 19, 1865

Nothing of note.287

February 20, 1865

Nothing of note.288

February 21, 1865

Nothing of note.289

February 22, 1865

Nothing of note.290

February 23, 1865

Nothing of note.291

February 24, 1865

Nothing of note.292

February 25, 1865

Nothing of note.293

February 26, 1865

Nothing of note.294

February 27, 1865

Nothing of note.295

February 28, 1865

Nothing of note.296

 

 

March 1865

March 1, 1865

Nothing of note.297

March 2, 1865

Nothing of note.298

March 3, 1865

Nothing of note.299

March 4, 1865

Nothing of note.300

March 5, 1865

Nothing of note. 301

March 6, 1865

Nothing of note.302

March 7, 1865

Crawford’s entire Third Division, Fifth Corps is reviewed by Army of the Potomac commander George G. Meade.303

March 8, 1865

Nothing of note.304

March 9, 1865

Nothing of note.305

March 10, 1865

Nothing of note.306

March 11, 1865

Nothing of note.307

March 12, 1865

Nothing of note.308

March 13, 1865

Nothing of note.309

March 14, 1865

Nothing of note.310

March 15, 1865

Nothing of note.311

March 16, 1865

The 88th PA is moved to the Third Brigade, Third Division, Fifth Corps, and Ayoub indicates the 88th and 56th Pennsylvania were combined into one unit in the field. Brigade commander Coulter’s report on Five Forks does show the two regiments as “consolidated” on April 1, 1865.  Dyer’s Compendium disagrees that the two units were ever combined, at least officially.  More research is needed. Major Henry A. Laycock of the 56th PA is placed in combined command when the units are in the field.312

March 17, 1865

Nothing of note.313

March 18, 1865

Nothing of note.314

March 19, 1865

Nothing of note.315

March 20, 1865

Nothing of note.316

March 21, 1865

Nothing of note.317

March 22, 1865

Nothing of note.318

March 23, 1865

Nothing of note.319

March 24, 1865

Nothing of note.320

March 25, 1865

… until the 25th of March, when pandemonium broke loose on the right, caused by Gordon s irruption on our lines at Fort Steadman, and our division was pulled out of camp and marched in the direction of Meade s head-quarters, to take part in the fray, if needed. But Hartranft s Pennsylvanians settled Gordon’s hash, and our boys moved to near Fort Dushane, where they were reviewed by President Lincoln and lots of lesser stars: major-generals were so thick in these days as to cease to cause remark. During the first year of the war, if a general of any grade came along the boys thought it the orthodox thing to get up as big a hurrah as possible, and the generals relished it; but nowadays “Old Grant” or “Pop Meade” passed by with scarcely a salute, they appearing to enjoy this quietness just as much as the smaller commanders did the hubbub in other days. General Warren was always with his men: in the front where the missiles were thickest, building works, or wherever else the soldiers were stationed, there Warren could be found.321

The 88th PA is assigned to man Fort Dushane.322

March 26, 1865

Nothing of note.323

March 27, 1865

Nothing of note.324

March 28, 1865

Nothing of note.325

March 29, 1865

On March 29, 1865, the bugles sounded for the final pack-up, and soon the camps were deserted, though many of the incredulous ones, bearing in mind the numerous former abortive movements, confidently predicted a speedy return; but the column pulled out towards the Boydton road, and the soldiers never saw those camps again.

The line of march was along the Halifax road parallel to the Weldon Railroad, beyond the breastworks turning sharply westward and crossing Rowanty Creek at Monk’s Neck Bridge and road, then north on the Quaker road, finally reaching Boydton plank road near the junction of the two roads, where the corps halted and intrenched.326

The combined 56th/88th PA, and all of Crawford’s Division, moves up on the left flank of the Fifth Corps after the Battle of Quaker Road, reaching and facing the Boydton Plank Road. They drive back Confederate skirmishers as they advance on the Boydton Plank Road.327

March 30, 1865

The weather, probably to maintain its past record during like movements, went back on the boys again, a heavy rain drenching them to the skin and presaging another unsuccessful attempt on this flank…328

Coulter’s Third Brigade remains in entrenchments on the Boydton Plank Road near the Butler House during a day of rain. They construct two lines of defensive positions during this lull in the action.329

March 31, 1865

…but on the morning of Friday, the 31st, it cleared nicely, though the country was a vast swamp, the only hard ground apparently being the ridge upon which the enemy was securely posted. About noon a general advance was made against the Southern works along the White Oak road, defended by the brigades of Hunton, Wise, McGowan, and Grade; but the assault was repelled, the enemy advancing and, flanking Crawford and Ayres, forced them back upon Griffin, where the broken battalions reformed. Later in the afternoon another advance was ordered, the men going in with confidence and spirit, striking the Confederate line near the road, and by a gallant charge carrying the works, capturing many flags and prisoners. This action is generally known as the battle of White Oak road or Gravelly Run. Several of the regiment were wounded in this spirited fight, among them Captain Gilligan, Jacob Sinister, Thomas H. Anderson, and John S. Campbell.330

Coulter’s Brigade was temporarily attached to Ayres’ Division.  Fifth Corps advanced against White Oak Road, but an unexpected Confederate attack routed Crawford and Ayres.  A late afternoon advance drove the Confederates all the way back to their White Oak Road Line.  The 88th PA is detailed for picket duty that night.  Three of Coulter’s regimental commanders were wounded: Lt. Col. Dailey of the 147th NY, Lt. Col. Warren of the 142nd PA, Major Fish of the 94th NY.331

 

 

April 1865

April 1, 1865

News now came that Sheridan, with his cavalry, was hard pressed by Pickett s infantry at Dinwiddie, and that the 5th Corps must go to the rescue; so late at night the march was made to Sheridan’s assistance, and the morning of April 1 found the 5th Corps pushing through the fields, concentrating near Gravelly Run, close to Crump’s farm. Early in the afternoon the column marched to Gravelly Run Church and massed, preparatory to a united advance upon Pickett at Five Forks, Warren to smash his left and the cavalry to break his front. Behind his works, Pickett, with the brigades of Corse, Terry, Steuart, Ransom, and Wallace and the cavalry divisions of Munford, Lee, and Rosser, in all, upward of 13,000 veteran Confederate soldiers, confidently waited for Warren s attack. The 5th Corps was about 12,000 strong, the cavalry mustering several thousand more, and when this force moved to the attack it bore all opposition before it. The 88th, with Baxter s brigade, deflected somewhat to the right, striking the graybacks well to their left and rear, and though they made a plucky stand, nothing could resist the impetuous rush of Crawford s troops, who, bursting through, captured men by the thousands, together with colors and whole batteries. The victory was complete; Pickett’s brigades were dispersed, those who escaped the infantry being chased by the cavalry, and not a battery or regiment maintained its organization. After the men had yelled themselves hoarse over the victory, the corps moved back towards Gravelly Run Church and rested for the night, and there wasn’t a man in that jubilant camp but felt he had grown a foot taller since sunrise.

The Union loss was about 1000; of these, 634 were from the 5th Corps, over 300 being from Crawford s division. The enemy lost nearly 6000 in prisoners alone, the 5th Corps capturing about 3300, with eleven colors and one entire battery. The loss in our regiment included some who had served in every campaign and participated in every battle, only to die in this our last general engagement of the Rebellion. A partial list is as follows: killed, Captain Koch, Lieutenant Lehman, and David Whitaker; wounded, Lieutenants Wade and Ney, and Charles Small.332

The combined 56th/88th PA had 323 officers and men PFD on April 1, 1865.333

After fighting in the Battle of Five Forks, Coulter’s Brigade camps at Gravelly Run Church.334

April 2, 1865

Sunday, April 2, 1865, dawned calm and peaceful, but there was no rest for the weary; the corps marched towards Petersburg, then countermarched to Hatcher s Run, crossed and went to the famous South Side Railroad, then, facing towards Petersburg again and bearing to the left, halted at night north of Sutherland Station on the Namozine road, and after a skirmish, bivouacked at eleven P.M., all the men very tired.

The absence of General Warren had been noted, but it was not generally known until late on the 2d that he had been relieved by General Sheridan. General Warren had endeared himself to his command, was universally respected as a brave, careful, and energetic commander, and his removal was regarded as an act of injustice to a man who was always at the front among his men, regardless of his own comfort or safety.335

Crawford’s Division marches north to the Southside RR and then move west, crossing Cox Road and then reaching Namozine Road. Moving north towards the Appomattox River, they skirmish with the Confederaye rear guard.  The 88th PA is involved in this action.336

April 3, 1865

On April 3 the corps, under General Griffin, was astir bright and early, but Lee had evacuated Petersburg and was breaking away for the mountains, evidently hunting the last ditch; so the column was started in hot pursuit, halting at ten o clock P.M. at Deep Creek…337

April 4, 1865

…up again at day-dawn on the 4th, on the trail of the Confederate army, and passing many discouraged stragglers, most of whom were fast losing faith in the Confederacy.338

April 5, 1865

Remained at Jetersville on the 5th, in line of battle, but Lee slipped by; then about faced and went to Paineville, then to Legontown, and halted for the night.339

April 6, 1865

 

April 7, 1865

On the 7th marched to Prince Edwards…340

April 8, 1865

…on the 8th to Prospect Station, thence to Appomattox…341

April 9, 1865

…thence to Appomattox, which was reached on the morning of the 9th, after an exhausting march.

The 5th and 24th Corps, with Sheridan s troopers, were now planted across Lee s line of retreat, while the 2d and 6th Corps came driving up in his rear. On the 9th he made a determined effort to break through what he supposed to be the Union cavalry, but when he discovered the infantry in line of battle, he saw that further resistance was useless, and surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to its old foe, the Army of the Potomac. When the formal announcement of the surrender was made the soldiers were wild with joy. Towards their late foes only the kindest actions were manifested, and when it was known that Lee s ragged veterans were starving, the Union soldiers willingly shared their scanty rations with them. To the 5th Corps was assigned the duty of executing the conditions of the capitulation, and the regiment remained here until April 15, then marched back to Wilson s Station, under command of Captain Aaron Bright.342

Notes:

  1. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 191.
  2. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 191.
  3. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 273.
  4. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 191.
  5. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 191.
  6. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 191.
  7. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, pp. 277-278.
  8. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, pp. 191-195.
  9. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 195.
  10. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 284.
  11. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, pp. 284-285.
  12. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 285.
  13. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 285.
  14. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 195.
  15. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 285.
  16. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 196.
  17. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 285.
  18. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 285.
  19. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 286.
  20. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 286.
  21. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 286.
  22. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, pp. 286-287.
  23. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 196.
  24. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 287.
  25. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 287.
  26. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 196.
  27. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 287.
  28. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 287.
  29. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 196.
  30. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 287.
  31. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 288.
  32. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 288.
  33. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 288.
  34. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 288.
  35. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 196.
  36. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 288.
  37. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 290.
  38. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 290.
  39. Vautier, John D. History of the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers in the War for the Union, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: Printed by J.B. Lippincott, 1894, p. 196.
  40. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 290.
  41. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 290.
  42. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 291.
  43. Ayoub, Michael N. The Campfire Chronicles: The Words and Deeds of the 88th Pennsylvania, 1861-1865. Xlibris, 2010, p. 291.
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