BTC Notes: The Confederate Alamo: Bloodbath at Petersburg’s Fort Gregg on April 2, 1865

   

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The Confederate Alamo: Bloodpath at Petersburg's Fort Gregg on April 2, 1865 by John J. Fox IIISubject: The Confederate Alamo: Bloodbath at Petersburg’s Fort Gregg on April 2, 1865 by John J. Fox III

Important Points:

Preface:

  • Although many veterans considered Fort Gregg their hardest fight of the war, and the battle was refought vociferously in the newspapers and magazines after the war, the dramatic story of Fort Gregg was somehow lost until now.1
  • Author John Fox doesn’t directly mention it, but his book is the first modern monograph focusing specifically on this battle.

Chapter 1: Grant Makes Plans to Bag Lee (Again): March 27 to April 1, 1865

  • In March 1865 Lee’s Confederate army of 56,000 men held over 40 miles of entrenchments against greater than 100,000 Union soldiers.  He had one railroad supply line left and it was highly vulnerable.  Lee meant to escape and join Johnston’s Army of Tennessee to prolong the war.  Grant feared just such a thing and wanted to move as soon as good weather appeared.2
  • Grant’s plan happened first.  He took soldiers from Gibbon’s Twenty-Fourth Corps in the Army of the James who were in trenches opposite Richmond and swung them all the way to the far left of his lines, allowing the Union Second Corps and Fifth Corps to extend the Union lines even further southwest to Dinwiddie Court House.3
  • A series of battles along the lines southwest of Petersburg and culminating with the Battle of Five Forks essentially cut Lee’s final supply line and set the stage for the final assaults on Petersburg.4

Chapter 2: Lee Faces a Serious Disaster: April 1, 1865: Morning to 10 PM

  • After the Five Forks disaster, Lee pulled three of Bushrod Johnson’s brigades from the line near the White Oak Road and had them move to help Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry near the South Side Railroad.  This left a portion of the line held by a skeleton force, and Lee ordered Field’s Division of the First Corps to move from the works north of the James to fill this hole, hoping Grant wouldn’t discover it and attack.5
  • The origins, purpose, and physical appearance of Fort Gregg, Fort Whitworth, and Fort Owen are discussed.6
  • Some of the defenders of Fort Gregg were listed with background late in the chapter.7

Chapter 3: The Union Breakthrough: April 1, Evening, to April 2, 5:45 AM

  • First part of Chapter 3 covers the successful April 2 morning frontal assault by Wright’s Sixth Corps against three brigades of Wilcox’s Division.  Around 14,000 Federals faced 3000 or so Confederates in an attack which started at 4:40 AM with the firing of a signal gun.
  • Wright’s troops first wheeled left and advanced down the Confederate lines four miles to Hatcher’s Run.  There they met Gibbon’s Twenty-Fourth Corps, and together they moved northeast again, towards Petersburg.
  • Confederates southwest of the breach retreated in the direction of Hatcher’s Run, those east of ther breach headed northeast to Forts Gregg and Whitworth, near Petersburg.
  • Troops from Hamblin’s 2nd Brig, Wheaton’s Div, Sixth Corps moved northeast towards Petersburg to hold onto the Confederate works from an attack in this direction.  By 5:45 AM, they had come near Fort Owen, and it looked like it would fall easily.

Chapter 4: Confederate Third Corps Chaos: April 1, 10 PM to April 2, 6:45 AM

  • A.P. Hill was killed by a Union soldier around 6:40 AM on April 3 while reconnoitering his broken Third Corps lines.
  • Around 6:40 in the morning, Hamblin’s Union Brigade managed to capture Fort Owen briefly until a charge from Fort Gregg reversed the situation.8
  • Cadmus Wilcox was in charge of the line attempting to hold off Union forces from entering Petersburg from the southwest.  He had reinforcements coming in the form of almost 400 men from harris’ MS Brigade, Mahone’s Div.  Wilcox wanted to counterattack, but brigade leader James Lane disagreed, wanting not only not to attack, but also to abandon Forts Whitworth and Gregg and retreat to the Dimmock line proper.  Wilcox insisted, and the stage was set for a “Confederate Alamo”.9

Chapter 5: Confederates Punch Back: April 2, 7 AM

  • Lane’s and Thomas’s Brigades of Wilcox’s Division were ordered to counterattack southwest of Fort Gregg, and did so successfully.  However, Gibbon’s Twenty-Fourth Corps was fast approaching.10
  • The Foster’s First Division and Turber’s Independent Division of the Union Twenty-Fourth Corps were left of the Sixth Corps in the Union line.  They took over the Confederate works near Hatcher’s Run as Wright approached from the flank.  Then, Sixth and Twenty-Fourth Corps moved northeast to within a mile of Fort Gregg and Fort Whitworth, where Lane, Thomas, and Harris (about 1000 men total) were arrayed to delay them  Lee depended on these three small brigades to hold out long enough for Charles Field’s veteran First Corps division to reach Petersburg and man the western end of the Dimmock Line.  Failure meant the destruction of a large portion of Lee’s Army.11

Chapter 6: Reality Reaches Richmond: April 2, 8 AM to 11:15 AM

  • Harris’ MS Brigade presented a bold front to the large mass of Union soldiers, and used the terrain to hide their weakness.  Lane and Thomas were off to his left.  Being closer to the Northern troops, they left in the direction of Fort Gregg earlier than Harris.
  • Postwar controversy erupted when Harris indicated his was the only brigade west of Fort Gregg at that point.  Fox surmises Harris could not see the other two Confederate brigades due to the terrain.
  • Lee telegraphed Richmond that he hoped to hold out until night, but that Richmond needed to be evacuated.

Chapter 7: Gibbon’s Twenty-Fourth Corps Approaches Fort Gregg, April 2, 7 AM to 11 AM

  • Turner’s and Foster’s Divisions of the 24th Corps maneuvered slowly into position against Fort Whitworth and Fort Gregg up to around 10:30 AM, but Gibbon was waiting for some of the 6th Corps to come up as well.  At this point there were almost no troops guarding the western approaches to Petersburg other than those men in the two forts.12

Chapter 8: Walker’s Unusual Artillery Order: April 2, 10 AM to Noon

  • Confederate artilleryman Brig Gen R. Lindsay Walker gave the order to remove all artillery from Forts Whitworth and Gregg.  Division commander Cadmus Wilcox disagreed.  Ultimately, Fort Gregg never got this order.  Two Union artillery batteries from the 6th Corps artillery reserve moved up to support the soon to come Federal attack.  The Confederates fired their winter camps in front of Fort Whitworth to make it more difficult on the Union attackers.13

Chapter 9: The Fort Gregg Defenders: An Uneasy Resolve: April 2, 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM

  • This chapter covers the defenders of Ft. Gregg and what they went through once they realized they were the last defense in front of Petersburg.  Some men ran when they realized the twin forts were essentially a death trap, but ultimately about 334 men stayed to defend Fort Gregg to the last.  Men from Harris’ Mississippi Brigade, as well as contingents of North Carolinians and Georgians as well as Third Corps artillerists were crammed into the fort.14

Chapter 10: A Long Wait to Attack: April 2, 11:15 AM to 1 PM

  • As Foster’s Division of the 24th Corps waited, Turner’s Division moved slowly into position to the north, facing Fort Whitworth.  While this was happening, Union skirmishers were peppering Fort Gregg, trying to make the Confederates keep their heads down.  Once 6th Corps divisions were in supporting distance, Gibbon ordered Foster to attack around 1 PM.15

Chapter 11: Osborn’s East Wing Attacks in First Wave: April 2, 1 PM

  • Colonel Thomas Osborn’s 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 24th Corps attacked the south and east side of Fort Gregg around 1 PM on April 2, 1865, in conjunction with Dandy’s Brigade to its left.  The steep walls, water filled moat, and Confederate fire kept these men pinned down at the base of the wall.16

Chapter 12: Dandy’s West Wing Attacks in First wave: April 2, 1 PM

  • Colonel George Dandy’s 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 24th Corps attacked the southwest and west side of Fort Gregg around 1 PM on April 2, 1865, in conjunction with Osborn’s Brigade to its right.  The shallower moat combines with dirt piled near and up to the rampart allowed Dandy’s two regiments to climb the wall much more easily.  Dandy’s younger brother died in this fight while leading his regiment’s charge.17

Chapter 13: The Confederate Defenders Steel Themselves for the Blue Wave, April 2, 12:30 PM

  • The Confederates in Fort Gregg prepared for the first main Union assault as best they could.  Walker’s order to remove the cannon from Fort Whitworth reached that place and four valuable Napoleons which could have enfiladed the Union attack were pulled back.18

Chapter 14: Low on Ammunition and No Reinforcements, April 2, 1 PM to 2 PM

  • The Confederate defenders began to run low on ammunition and resorted to using bayonets and bricks to beat back the ever increasing presence of Union soldiers around the fort.  Combat was at extreme close range at this point on all sides of the fort.19
  • The first reinforcements from Field’s First Corps division reached Petersburg around 11 am, though they did not make it to the threatened western edge of the city until two hours later.  These reinforcements were 260 men of the 2nd and 20th Georgia regiments of Benning’s Brigade.  The defenders of Fort Gregg had no way of knowing these reinforcements had come, because they only went as far as the inner line, not all the way to Fort Gregg, which was doomed.20

Chapter 15: Union Reinforcements Hit the West Wall, April 2, 2 PM

  • The 89th and 158th New York regiments from Fairchild’s 4th Brigade, 1st Division, 24th Corps, around 600 men, were sent into the fight and charged Fort Gregg’s west wall.  The renewed pressure here forced the Confederates to slacken fire elsewhere and allowed Union troops from Dandy’s and Osborn’s Brigades to gain a stronger foothold against the fort.21

Chapter 16: Another Union Division Attacks, April 2, 2:15 PM

  • Curtis’ and Potter’s brigades of Turner’s Independent Division of the 24th Corps next advanced in a third wave around 2:15 PM.  The men from the first two waves joined up with these new men and gained footholds all along the parapet of Fort Gregg, some men even starting to drop into the fort. This chapter focuses on Potter’s assault.22

Chapter 17: The Blue Wave Surges Over the Walls,April 2, 2:15 PM to 2:45 PM

  • The first part of the chapter covers the attack of Curtis’ Brigade.  Eventually, the Union men found a weak spot at the northwest corner of the fort where the trench to Fort Whitworth had been started.  Men climbed dirt from this trench to the parapet and swarmed inside.  The Confederates’ attention was drawn to this area and soon Union soldiers were dropping into the Fort from all directions.23

Chapter 18: Inside the Pit of Fort Gregg, April 2, 2:45 PM to 3:15 PM

  • Once enough Federal soldiers got into Fort Gregg, the fighting became hand to hand.  Eventually the Confederates were forced to surrender.  Fox details some accusations of atrocities committed when some Union troops continued to kill and wound men who had already surrendered.24

Chapter 19: Fort Whitworth, April 2, 3:15 PM

  • After Fort Gregg fell, other Union forces moved in the direction of Fort Gregg.  Nathaniel Harris received orders to retre with his two Mississippi regiments before the Federals closed, however.  Charles Field’s other brigades arrived throughout the day until the whole division was present by about sunset.  The Union soldiers did not ever make a serious move beyond Forts Whitworth and Gregg once Fort Gregg fell.  Lee ordered the evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond that evening.25

Chapter 20: Did Sacrificing the Twin Forts Allow Lee to Escape?  April 3, 1865, to June 13, 1865

  • Richmond and Petersburg were evacuated the night of April 2, 1865.
  • The fate of the Confederate prisoners from the battle was next discussed.
  • Ultimately, the defenders of Fort Gregg bought Lee’s army another week of life, not enough time to rendezvous with General Joe Johnston’s forces further south.

Epilogue

  • The author speculates why the Battle for Fort Gregg is not better known today despite leaving a major imprint on Civil War veterans who were in or near the struggle.
  • Fort Gregg and Fort Whitworth were spared destruction in the 1970s despite an interstate highway being built directly between them.

Appendix A: The Fort Gregg Area Today

  • Driving directions, a map of the present day area, and photos taken at the forts today make up this appendix.

Appendix B: Order of Battle

  • This order of battle is one of the better ones I’ve seen, showing wherever possible all unit strengths and commanders of the units involved in the Battle of Fort Gregg.

Appendix C: Fort Gregg Casualties

  • An attempt is made to provide accurate casualty figures for all units involved in the Battle of Fort Gregg down to regimental level.

Appendix D: Confederates at Fort Gregg

  • The author made an attempt to list all of the men who possibly defended Fort Gregg on April 2, 1865.  Due to poor record keeping and lost records from late in the war, this is impossible to do with 100% certainty.  Fox listed men in regular type if they were definitely guarding the fort.  He moved on to italics and then a * and italics to denote probable and possible defenders.  The total list results in more men than the 334 the author estimates defended Fort Gregg that day.

Appendix E: Fort Whitworth’s Controversial Artillery Withdrawal

  • Third Corps artillery chief R. L. Walker’s controversial order to remove artillery from Fort Whitworth caused the loss of support of these four guns by Fort Gregg.  Fox goes over whether or not the guns could have made a difference in Fort Gregg’s holding out for a longer period of time.  A look at postwar accusations and recriminations around the event ends the appendix.

Appendix F: The First Union Flag on Fort Gregg Controversy

  • Fox discusses the postwar battles fought among the Union regiments as to whose flag was first planted on Fort Gregg, sifting among the claimants and going over the difficulties involved in being able to tell the ownership of a given flag through the smoke and confusion of battle.

Appendix G:  Which Southern Artillery Batteries Helped Defend Fort Gregg?

  • Another postwar controversy involved the artillerymen serving as infantry and those who manned the guns in Fort Gregg.  The Washington Artillery tended to dismiss the participation of Chew’s Battery, among other disagreements.

Appendix H: Fort Gregg Medal of Honor Recipients

  • This appendix features a list of the Union soldiers who earned Medals of Honor for their axtions during the assault on Fort Gregg.

Unit Strengths

  • Field’s Division, First Corps, ANV: 4600 “riflemen” on April 1, 1865.  Is this PFD or effectives?26
  • Harris’ MS Brig, Mahone’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: almost 400 men at Fort Gregg and environs on April 2, 1865, but a total strength of almost 600.27
  • Lane’s NC Brig and Thomas’ GA Brigade combined had about 600 men when they counterattacked southwest from Fort Gregg on the morning of April 2, 1865.28
  • 2nd GA, Benning’s GA Brig, Field’s Div, First Corps, ANV: 100 soldiers on April 2, 186529
  • 20th GA, Benning’s GA Brig, Field’s Div, First Corps, ANV: about 160 men on April 2, 186530

Note: All unit strengths when known of those troops participating directly in the battle are listed in the Order of Battle at the back of the book.  The following information is taken from that order of battle:31

  • Fort Gregg: ~334 men
  • Mississippi detachment from 12th & 16th MS, Harris’ MS Brig, Mahone’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: ~150 total
  • Georgia detachment from Thomas’ GA Brig, Wilcox’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: ~40 men
  • North Carolina detachment from Lane’s NC Brig, Wilcox’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: ~80 men
  • Third Corps artillery serving as infantry: ~64 men
  • Fort Whitworth: ~200
  • 1st Div (Foster), 24th Corps: ~2675 men
  • 1st Brig (Osborn), 1st Div, 24th Corps: ~1275 men
  • 39th IL, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: 150 men
  • 62nd OH, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: ~150 men
  • 67th OH, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: ~150 men
  • 85th PA, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: 125 men
  • 199th PA, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: 700 men
  • 3rd Brig (Dandy), 1st Div, 24th Corps: ~800 men
  • 10th CT, 3rd Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: 193 men
  • 4th Brig (Fairchild), 1st Div, 24th Corps: ~600 men in the attack
  • 89th NY, 4th Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: ~300 men
  • 158th NY, 4th Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: ~300 men
  • 2nd Div (Turner), 24th Corps: ~3038 men
  • 1st Brig (Potter), 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~700 men
  • 34th MA, 1st Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: 350 men
  • 116th OH, 1st Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: 350 men
  • 2nd Brig (Curtis), 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~1017 men
  • 23rd IL Bn, 2nd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~100 men
  • 54th PA, 2nd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~491 men
  • 12th WV, 2nd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~426 men
  • 3rd Brig (Harris), 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~1321 men
  • 10th WV, 3rd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~324 men
  • 11th WV, 3rd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~426 men
  • 15th WV, 3rd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: ~512 men

Unit Armament

  • 4th MD (Chesapeake) Arty section manning Ft. Gregg: 2 Napoleons which were moved prior to the battle.32
  • 1st NY Lt Arty, 6th Corps Arty Reserve: 1 4-piece section (indicating this battery possessed another section) on April 2, 1865 commanded by Lt. William Sears.33
  • 3rd VT Lt Arty, 6th Corps Arty Reserve: 6 Napoleons on April 2, 1865.34
  • Ft. Gregg: 2 3-inch rifles on April 2, 1865.35
  • 23rd IL Bn, 2nd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: some of the men in the regiment were equipped with Henry Repeating Rifles on April 2, 1865.36

Unit Commanders:

  • Erson’s Brig, Wilcox’s Div, Third Corps: Lt. Col. Edward Erson was in command on April 2, 1865.37
  • 65th NY, 2nd Brig, Wheaton’s Div, Sixth Corps: Lt. Col Henry C. Fisk in command on April 2, 1865.38
  • 95th PA, 2nd Brig, Wheaton’s Div, Sixth Corps: Lt. Col John Harper in command on April 2, 1865.39
  • 18th NC, Lane’s NC Brig, Wilcox’s Div, Third Corps: Maj. Thomas J. Wooten commanded on April 2, 1865.40
  • 1st NY Lt Arty, 6th Corps Arty Reserve: Lt. Orasmus R. Van Etten commanded the battery on April 2, 1865.41
  • 3rd VT Lt Arty, 6th Corps Arty Reserve: Capt. Romeo Start commanded the battery on April 2, 1865.42

Note: All unit commanders when known of those troops participating directly in the battle are listed in the Order of Battle at the back of the book.  The following information is taken from that order of battle:43

  • Fort Gregg: Lt. Col. James H. Duncan
  • 12th MS, Harris’ MS Brig, Mahone’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: Capt. Archibald K. Jones
  • 16th MS, Harris’ MS Brig, Mahone’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: Capt. James H. Duncan
  • Georgia detachment from Thomas’ GA Brig, Wilcox’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: Major Mark Newman of the 49th GA
  • North Carolina detachment from Lane’s NC Brig, Wilcox’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: Lt. George H. Snow of the 33rd NC
  • 3rd Co., Washington LA Artillery, Third Corps artillery serving as infantry: Lt. Frank McElroy
  • 4th MD Arty Section (Chew’s Btty): Capt. Walter Chew
  • Fort Whitworth: Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Harris
  • 19th MS, Harris’ MS Brig, Mahone’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: Col. Richard W. Phipps
  • 48th MS, Harris’ MS Brig, Mahone’s Div, Third Corps, ANV: Col. Joseph M. Jayne
  • 1st Div (Foster), 24th Corps: Brig. Gen. Robert S. Foster
  • 1st Brig (Osborn), 1st Div, 24th Corps: Col. Thomas O. Osborn
  • 39th IL, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Capt. Homer A. Plimpton
  • 62nd OH, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Lt. Col. Henry R. West
  • 67th OH, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Col. Alvin C. Voris
  • 85th PA, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Lt. Absalom S. Dial
  • 199th PA, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Col. James C. Briscoe
  • 3rd Brig (Dandy), 1st Div, 24th Corps: Col. George B. Dandy
  • 10th CT, 3rd Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Lt. Col. Ellsworth D.S. Goodyear
  • 11th ME, 3rd Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Col. J.A. Hill
  • 100th NY, 3rd Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Major James H. Dandy
  • 4th Brig (Fairchild), 1st Div, 24th Corps: Col. Harrison S. Fairchild
  • 89th NY, 4th Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Major F.W. Tremain
  • 158th NY, 4th Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Major Hyram Kalt
  • 148th NY, 4th Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Col. John Murray
  • 55th PA, 4th Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Capt. George Hill
  • 8th ME, 4th Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Lt. Col. Edward A. True
  • 2nd Div (Turner), 24th Corps: Brig Gen. John W. Turner
  • 1st Brig (Potter), 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Lt. Col. Andrew Potter
  • 34th MA, 1st Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Capt. Frank Leach
  • 116th OH, 1st Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Lt. Col. Wilbert B. Teters
  • 2nd Brig (Curtis), 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Col. William B. Curtis
  • 23rd IL Bn, 2nd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Capt. Patrick Ryan
  • 54th PA, 2nd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Lt. Col. A.P. Moulton
  • 12th WV, 2nd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Capt. Erastus G. Bartlett
  • 3rd Brig (Harris), 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Brig. Gen. Thomas M. Harris
  • 10th WV, 3rd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Capt. Marshall W. Coburn
  • 11th WV, 3rd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Major Michael Ayers
  • 15th WV, 3rd Brig, 2nd Div, 24th Corps: Lt. Col. John W. Holliday

Other:

  • 199th PA, 1st Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: Formed in October 1864 in Philadelphia, PA
  • 10th CT, 3rd Brig, 1st Div, 24th Corps: 4 companies left behind on the skirmish line prior to attack on Fort Gregg44

Sources:

  1. The Confederate Alamo: Bloodbath at Petersburg’s Fort Gregg on April 2, 1865, pages xi-xii
  2. The Confederate Alamo, pages 1-4
  3. The Confederate Alamo, pages 4-5
  4. The Confederate Alamo, pages 5-12
  5. The Confederate Alamo, pages 13-14
  6. The Confederate Alamo, pages 15-18
  7. The Confederate Alamo, pages 18-20
  8. The Confederate Alamo, page 40
  9. The Confederate Alamo, pages 41-44
  10. The Confederate Alamo, pages 45-50
  11. The Confederate Alamo, pages 51-57
  12. The Confederate Alamo, pages 69-76
  13. The Confederate Alamo, pages 77-82
  14. The Confederate Alamo, pages 83-92
  15. The Confederate Alamo, pages 93-98
  16. The Confederate Alamo, pages 99-113
  17. The Confederate Alamo, pages 115-124
  18. The Confederate Alamo, pages 125-134
  19. The Confederate Alamo, pages 135-140
  20. The Confederate Alamo, pages 140-143
  21. The Confederate Alamo, pages 145-149
  22. The Confederate Alamo, pages 151-161
  23. The Confederate Alamo, pages 163-175
  24. The Confederate Alamo, pages 177-189
  25. The Confederate Alamo, pages 191-204
  26. The Confederate Alamo, page 13
  27. The Confederate Alamo, page 43
  28. The Confederate Alamo, page 45
  29. The Confederate Alamo, page 141
  30. The Confederate Alamo, page 141
  31. The Confederate Alamo, pages 225-227
  32. The Confederate Alamo, page 19
  33. The Confederate Alamo, page 80
  34. The Confederate Alamo, page 81
  35. The Confederate Alamo, page 81
  36. The Confederate Alamo, page 169
  37. The Confederate Alamo, page 23
  38. The Confederate Alamo, page 34
  39. The Confederate Alamo, page 34
  40. The Confederate Alamo, page 45
  41. The Confederate Alamo, page 80
  42. The Confederate Alamo, page 81
  43. The Confederate Alamo, pages 225-227
  44. The Confederate Alamo, page 95

***



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